FAQ’s

FAQ’s : textile glossary

 

Textile Terms begin with ‘A’

acetate
A manufactured fiber from cellulose acetate

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


acid rain
The release of materials which have been transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere and are then deposited on earth through rain, sleet or fog. These materials can cause damage to buildings and harm terrestrial, animal, plant and human health.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary


acrylic
Generic term for a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 percent by weight of acrylonitrile units

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph


Agion®
Agion® antimicrobial technology is based on naturally occurring elements (silver and copper ions). It is not a topical treatment; rather, it is extruded into a polyester fiber. The embedded Agion® technology allows for controlled antimicrobial release effective against damaging bacteria, mold, mildew, and fungi.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Agion®


algae
Several genera and species of green algae found in lakes, ponds and streams that are responsible for both aquatic oxygen balance and food
SOURCEs for fish are tested for their reaction to chemical exposure. Chemicals that kill algae are considered dangerous.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC


alpaca
Long, fine hair fibers from the alpaca, an animal native to South America

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph


American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC)
Founded in 1921, the AATCC is the world’s leading not-for-profit professional association for the textile design, materials, processing and testing industries. AATCC has thousands of individual and corporate members in more than 60 countries. The Association is internationally recognized for its standard methods of testing dyed and chemically treated fibers and fabrics to measure and evaluate such performance characteristics as colorfastness to light and washing, smoothness appearance, soil release, shrinkage, water resistance, and the many other conditions to which textiles may be subjected.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE :www.aatcc.org


American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
ANSI facilitates the development of American National Standards (ANS) by accrediting the procedures of standards developing organizations (SDOs). These groups work cooperatively to develop voluntary national consensus standards like NSF/ANSI 336, the Sustainability Assessment for Commercial Furnishings

Fabric.CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :American National Standards Institute


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
A nonprofit organization that provides a voluntary consensus system for developing standards through committees composed of producers, engineers, academics, regulatory bodies and other stakeholders.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :www.astm.org


American Textile Manufacturers Institute (ATMI)
The U.S. textile industry’s trade association for the domestic textile industry; activities encompass government relations, international trade, product and administrative services, communications and economic information.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :ACT Glossary


angora
Fine, lightweight hair fiber from the Angora rabbit. Hair fibers from the angora goat are typically referred to as mohair.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph


animal fibers
Fibers of animal origin such as wool, alpaca, camel hair and silk.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph


antibacterial finish
A treatment of a textile material to make it resistant to, or to retard growth of, bacteria.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph


antimony
A silvery-white metal found in the earth’s crust; frequently alloyed with lead to increase its hardness and strength. When combined with oxygen, it produces antimony trioxide.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary


antimony trioxide
A compound used as a fire retardant and as a catalyst to manufacture PET (polyethylene terephthalate.) It is a suspected human carcinogen.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary


applique
An ancient needlework technique in which pieces of fabric, embroidery or other materials are sewn onto a foundation fabric to create designs.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.


aquatic toxicity
The use or release of substances that have a toxic impact on aquatic species

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary


argyle
A pattern consisting of diamond shapes of different colors knit in a fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


armure
A plain, striped, ribbed or woven fabric having small fancy designs that suggest chain armor.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :answers.com


Association for Contract Textiles (ACT)
The Association for Contract Textiles is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1985. ACT is a professional trade group consisting primarily of companies that design, develop, produce and promote textiles for commercial interiors united for support, strength, credibility and common interests.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Green, Weave

SOURCE :ACT


astrakhan
Fur from young lambs from Astrakhan, characterized by lustrous, closely curled wool. Often imitated by thick woven or knitted fabric with loops or curls on the surface.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

backing

  • A general term for any system of yarn which interlaces on the back of a textile material.
  • A knit or woven fabric or plastic foam bonded to a face fabric.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Vectran Fiber Website


bamboo – natural (natural bamboo)
A fiber that is produced from original bamboo fibers and maintains all the original qualities inherent in bamboo. It is very similar to linen both in molecular structure and fiber characteristics.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Green

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

bamboo viscose

A fiber which has been reconstituted from the original bamboo fiber and therefore small amounts of original bamboo fiber remain. Viscose is the process of producing a rayon yarn and it was originally created to imitate silk.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Green

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

bar (or barré)
A manufactured fiber from cellulose acetate

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

barathea
A closely woven dobby-weave fabric with a characteristic pebbly surface. Generally made from silk or rayon, and often combined with cotton or worsted. Fabric is usually used for dresses, neckties and lightweight suits.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

bark crepe
A crepe fabric textured to simulate the appearance of tree bark.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :answers.com

 

basket weave
A plain weave with two or more warp and filling threads interlaced to resemble a plaited basket

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

bast fiber
Bast fiber or skin fiber is plant fiber collected from the phloem (the “inner bark” or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonic, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. Most of the technically important bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, rattan, bamboo.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Wikipedia

 

batik
An Indonesian word that refers to a generic wax-resistant dyeing technique used on textiles.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

batiste
A fabric named for Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. Lightweight, sheer, delicate fabric in a plain weave with a delicate hand and a graceful drape.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Silk Road, inc.

 

beaker dyeing
The dyeing of small fabric samples during color development.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

beam
The cylinder at both the front and back of a loom, onto which the warp is wound

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

bengaline
A fabric having a crosswise ribbed effect made of silk, wool or synthetic fibers.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

bias
An invisible line at 45 degrees diagonal to the grain of a fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

bioaccumulation
The process by which substances are stored and accumulated in the tissue or organs of humans or animals.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

biobased product
A commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable domestic agricultural (plant, animal and marine) or forestry materials.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
When a body of wastewater contains too much biological material, the bacteria and other microorganisms in it cannot successfully decompose all the organic matter for food, growth and energy. This breaking down of the biological material requires oxygen; therefore, by measuring the amount of oxygen that is depleted from the sample as a result of such bacterial action, the balance within the aquatic environment can be measured. The BOD is a standard test, which takes five days to run, and is performed by introducing a population of bacteria and microorganisms to attempt to duplicate what would happen in a natural stream. The most commonly used method to estimate the total quantity of biodegradable organic material in wastewater. Compare to Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

bioconcentration factor (BCF)
A measure of the tendency for a chemical to accumulate. The ratio of the concentration of a substance in a living organism (mg/kg) to the concentration of that substance in the surrounding environment (mg/l for aquatic systems).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

biodegradable
Exhibiting the capability of being broken down (or decomposed or metabolized) by microorganisms and reduced to organic or inorganic molecules which can be further utilized by living systems.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

biodegradation
The process by which a substance or material is broken down (or decomposed) by microorganisms and reduced to organic or inorganic molecules that can be further utilized by living systems. Biodegradation can be aerobic, if oxygen is present, or anaerobic, if no oxygen is present.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

 

biological metabolism
The natural processes of ecosystems are a biological metabolism, making safe and healthy use of materials in cycles of abundance

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

 

biological nutrient
A biodegradable material posing no immediate or eventual hazard to living systems that can be used for human purposes and can safely return to the environment to feed environmental processes.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

 

bird’s eye
A dobby-loom weave characterized by a small diamond shaped spots resembling bird’s eyes.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

blanket
A textile sample showing a series of patterns or colors all on the same warp.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

bleach cleanable
The fabric can be cleaned and sanitized with a ratio of household bleach to water

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

blend

  • A yarn of two or more staple fibers spun together.
  • A fabric containing blended yarns in the warp and filling.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

bombazine
A fine English twilled fabric of silk and worsted or cotton.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

bouclé
A fabric woven with boucle yarns, which have a looped appearance on the surface.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

breaking strength
The measurement of stress exerted to pull a fabric apart under tension.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

brocade
A rich jacquard fabric with allover interwoven design of raised figures or flowers. The name is derived from the French word meaning “to ornament.” The brocade pattern is emphasized with contrasting surfaces or colors and often has gold or silver threads running through it.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

burlap
A coarse, heavy plain-weave fabric made of jute.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

burn-out
A technique used to develop raised designs on fabric surface. Primarily done in fabrics with at least two different fiber content, i.e. cotton-polyester, silk-rayon, etc. One fiber component is being dissolved through chemical reactions while the other content remains intact, resulting in the illusion of a raised design.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : answers.com

 

by-product
Anything produced in an industrial or biological process in addition to the principal product; a secondary and sometimes unexpected or unintended result.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Bcetate
A manufactured fiber from cellulose acetate

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :

calendering
An ironing process that adds sheen to a fabric.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

California Environmental Re
SOURCEs Evaluation System (CERES)

An information system developed by the California Re
SOURCEs Agency to facilitate access to a variety of electronic data describing California’s diverse environments.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

camel hair
Wool-like, extremely soft, lustrous animal fiber. Natural colors range from light tan to brownish-black.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

canvas
Usually cotton or linen woven in a heavy firm weave.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

carcinogen- probable
A known animal carcinogen, but carcinogenicity in humans has not been definitely proven (MAK 2 or TLV A2 or IARC Group 2A).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

carcinogen-known
A causal relationship has been established between exposure to the agent and human cancer (MAK 1 or TLV A1 or IARC Group 1).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

Carcinogen-possible
A manufactured fiber from cellulose acetate

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

carding
A process used for all natural fibers, in which they are separated and brought into general alignment before spinning. Yarns spun from carded wool are called woolen yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

cashmere
A type of wool made from fibers obtained from the Cashmere goat characterized by luxuriously soft fibers.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

cellulose
An organic woody substance found in vegetation. It is base of rayon and acetate fibers and also the major constituent of paper.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

challis
A fine, light weight, plain-weave fabric; one of the softest fabrics made.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :ntroductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

chambray
A popular cotton fabric in plain weave that combines colored warp and white filling yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

chamois
A soft, pliant leather made from the fresh splits of a sheepskin, and oil-tanned.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

check
A small pattern of squares.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Chemical Abstract Service number (CAS number)
A number uniquely identifying each pure chemical compound.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
When a body of wastewater contains too much biological material, the bacteria and other microorganisms in it cannot successfully decompose all the organic matter for food, growth and energy. This breaking down of the biological material requires oxygen; therefore, by measuring the amount of oxygen that is depleted from the sample as a result of such bacterial action, the balance within the aquatic environment can be measured. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a test that adds a strong chemical oxidizing agent to the wastewater sample in order to estimate the result of bacterial action. Although it is completely artificial, it is considered to yield a result that may be used as the basis on which to calculate a reasonably accurate and reproducible estimate of the oxygen-demanding properties of a wastewater. The COD’s advantages (compared to the BOD test) are that it takes under three hours for completion and is not subject to the interference from toxic materials that can affect the results of the BOD. Both of these are standard tests for estimating the health of an aquatic environment.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

chenille
A fuzzy yarn whose pile resembles a caterpillar.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

chevron
The general shape of a V character similar to zigzag stripes.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

chiffon
A lightweight, balanced plain-woven sheer fabric woven with twist yarns. The twist in the crepe yarns puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a slightly rough feel. Made of silk, wool, or man-made fibers; From the French word for cloth.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

chintz

  • A highly lustrous printed cotton fabric with often with a glazed finish.
  • A painted or stained calico from India.

CATEGORY : Finish, Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
A compound consisting of chlorine, fluorine and carbon. CFCs are very stable in the troposphere. CFCs are commonly used as refrigerants, solvents and foam-blowing agents; uses of CFCs in aerosols are prohibited due to ozone depleting potential.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Chromium
Chromium is a steely-gray chemical element that has a high melting point and is often used in dyes, paints, and tanning of leather. It has an acute toxicity that can lead to organ failure in humans and it is also a carcinogen.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :Wikipedia

 

ciré
A highly glazed finish produced on the surface of the fabric, from the French verb meaning to wax.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

cisele
A velvet fabric on which the pattern is formed by contrast between cut and uncut pile loops.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Clean Air Act (CAA)

The federal statute that regulates air emissions from area, stationary and mobile
SOURCEs. This law authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public health and the environment.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

Clean Water Act
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, as amended in 1977, became commonly known as the Clean Water Act. The act established the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

Clearance Time (CT )
The CT indicates the time needed to eliminate or biodegrade a substance to a certain percentage in an organism. For example, the CT50 indicates the time needed to eliminate 50% of a certain substance, analogous to the half-life time measure t1/2.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

climatic relevance
A measure of the climate influencing characteristics of a substance. All compounds that contribute to global warming are listed here. Examples include carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs and sulfur hexafluoride.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

clipped fabrics
Clipping or shearing of floating threads between the design during finishing.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

cloqué
A cotton, silk or rayon fabric with a raised woven pattern and a puckered or quilted look.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

closed loop
A type of manufacturing process that utilizes a cyclical material flow in order to minimize waste.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

colorfastness to light

A material’s degree of resistance to the fading effect of light.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

combed cotton
Cotton yarn that is cleaned with wire brushes to remove short fibers and impurities after carding.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

compostable
Possessing the ability to break down into, or otherwise become part of, usable compost (e.g., soil-conditioning material, mulch) in a safe and timely manner.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :www.ftc.govos/1998/9804/63fr24240.pdf

 

content of halogenated organic
The column in the periodic chart of the elements that begins with Fluorine contains the halogens. These elements, when combined with organic compounds, form halogenated organic compounds. Most of these compounds are toxic, carcinogenic, persistent, ozone

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)
A 1980 federal statute that created the Superfund program and established a trust fund for the cleanup of abandoned and uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

converter
An individual or company that buys grey goods, applies any numbers of finishes (dyeing, printing, mercerizing etc.) and sells the finished fabric to a wholesaler or retailer.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

corduroy
A durable cut-pile fabric, usually made of cotton with vertical ribs. Back may be plain or twill weave.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

cotton
A soft vegetable fiber obtained from the seed pod of a cotton plant.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)
The Council on Environmental Quality coordinates federal environmental efforts. CEQ reports annually to the President on the state of the environment; oversees federal agency implementation of the environmental impact assessment process; and acts as a referee when agencies disagree over the adequacy of such assessments.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :The White House Website

 

corduroy
A durable cut-pile fabric, usually made of cotton with vertical ribs. Back may be plain or twill weave.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

count

  • The number size of a yarn. The higher the count, the finer the yarn.
  • The number of ends and picks per inch of weave. The higher the count, the finer the weave.

A durable cut-pile fabric, usually made of cotton with vertical ribs. Back may be plain or twill weave.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

Crypton Home
Crypton Home – Also known as INCASE® was created specifically for upholstery fabrics, offering a bundled solution of “repel and release” stain technology and microbial resistance for the life of the fabric and is to be used when a barrier is not required.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Crypton, INC. Website

 

cuprammonium
Classified as rayon, but differs from viscose because of its chemical composition.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

cut-pile fabric
A cloth with a three-dimensional surface produced by double weaving or by looping an additional warp or filling thread into the basic weave, and then cutting the loops (i.e. velvet, velour, plush).

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990/p>

damask
Jacquard woven, firm textured fabric with a raised pattern similar to a brocade but flatter.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

Daphnia toxicity
Water fleas of the genus Daphnia can be found in most ponds and streams. They feed upon microscopic particles of organic matter and are in turn food for fish and other aquatic organisms. Daphnia Toxicity is a measure of a substance’s toxicity when consumed by these water fleas. A common measuring tool for Daphnia Toxicity is EC50 (“effective concentration”), which is the concentration of a substance in the water required to immobilize 50 percent of the test animals. If EC50 < 10 mg/liter, the substance is named Daphnia Toxic.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

delustering
The application of a chemical treatment that reduces the sheen of man-made yarns and fabric.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

denier
A unit of weight indicating the size of a filament. The higher the denier number, the heavier the yarn.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

denim
A washable, strong, twilled cotton cloth with the warp yarns dyed blue and undyed filling yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

density
The number of picks and ends in a cloth.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

Department of Transportation Hazardous Material (DOT)
Materials that have been designated by the DOT to pose an unreasonable risk to human health, safety and/or property when transported.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

design for disassembly
Designing a product to be dismantled for easier maintenance, repair, recovery and reuse of components and materials.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

dimity
A lightweight, sheer cotton fabric having at least two warp threads thrown into relief to form fine cords.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP)
The most widely used plasticisers, primarily to make soft and flexible PVC for applications in the automotive, construction, textile, and medical industries. Can cause birth defects and cancer, based on animal test data.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :Chemicalland21.com

 

direct print
A pattern and/or ground color printed on the fabric in the desired colors.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

disperse dye
Sparingly soluble in water, particles of dye disperse in water and slowly dissolve into the fibers. Disperse dyes can be applied to a wide variety of fibers, but are really the only practical means of coloring acetate and polyester fibers.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Understanding Textiles (7th ed.) by Billie J. Collier, Martin J. Bide & Phyllis G. Tortora

 

dobby
Term applied to the loom or fabric. A dobby control on a loom controls the harnesses to permit the weaving of small geometric patterns. A dobby fabric, is made on a dobby loom and has a small geometric design.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph


double-weave
A type of advanced weave achieved by interlacing two or more sets of warps with two or more sets of filling yarns. Face and back may contrast in weave and color.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

doupion
A silk thread made from two cocoons united by two worms spinning close together. The yarn is uneven, irregular and thicker than that from one cocoon. Used in slub fabrics.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

downcycling
The practice of recycling a material in such a way that much of its inherent value is lost (for example, recycling plastic into park benches).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

duck
A compact, durable plain-weave cotton fabric.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

duvetyn
A very high-quality cloth resembling a compact velvet. It has a velvety hand resulting from the short nap that covers its surface, completely concealing its twill weave.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

dye affinity
The susceptibility of a fiber to various dyestuffs.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

eco-effectiveness
MBDC’s strategy for designing human industry that is safe, profitable and regenerative, producing economic, ecological and social value.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

eco-efficiency
The ability to produce and deliver desirable, competitively priced goods and services while progressively reducing the ecological impacts of these actions; Coined in 1992 by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development WBCSD.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

ecological intelligence
A product or process designed to embody the intelligence of natural systems (such as nutrient cycling, interdependence, abundance, diversity, solar power, regeneration).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

Effect Concentration 50 (EC50 )
The median exposure concentration (EC50) is the median concentration of a substance that causes some effect in 50 percent of the test animals.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

embodied energy
The total quantity of mass of materials required to produce, recycle or dispose of raw material and products.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

embossed
Figures or design raised on the surface of the fabric usually with engraved heat rollers.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

embroidery
Designs stitched in strands of thread or yarn using a needle to decorate fabric or other materials.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA)
The federal statute (of 1986) that is the third part of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, also known as SARA Title III. This law requires facilities to report the chemicals that they store, established the State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) and the Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPC) and led to the adoption of the OSHA HAZWOPER standard.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Encouraging Environmental Excellence (E3)
A voluntary rating system for textile factories developed by The American Textile Manufacturers Institute.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

end and end
A weave with two colors alternating in warp yarns

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

endocrine disruptors
A substance that mimics, blocks or interferes with hormones and their production, metabolism and excretion causing malfunction of the endocrine system, which can lead to malfunction of the reproductive, nervous and immune systems.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

Enviro-Mark
Enviro-Mark was developed in the United Kingdom to provide an Environmental Management System (EMS) accessible to all organizations. Enviro-Mark provides businesses with a framework to systematically assess their performance against agreed standards. Their are five standards, and achievement of each is verified by an external audit.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :Landcare Research

 

environment
The complex of physical, chemical and biotic factors (such as climate, soil and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
Federal laws and regulations (including NEPA, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969) require the federal government to evaluate effects of its actions on the environment and to consider alternative courses of action. An EIS is the required document that describes the positive and negative impacts on the environment as a result of a proposed action, impacts of alternatives and ways to mitigate the impacts. The Council for Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations stipulates the recommended format and content of Environmental Impact Statements.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Environmental Management System (EMS)
An industry-developed and driven management structure that prioritizes compliance with environmental policy objectives and targets effective implementation of environmentally-focused procedures; a key feature of an EMS is the preparation of documented systems, procedures and instructions to ensure effective communication and continuity of such implementation. ISO 14001 specifies the actual requirements for an EMS standard and is the most widely recognized system of this type.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The U.S. federal agency established in July of 1970 to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment, air, water and land upon which life depends; works closely with other federal agencies, state and local governments and Indian tribes to develop and enforce regulations under existing environmental laws; provides leadership in the nation’s environmental science, research, education and assessment efforts; and is responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of environmental programs and delegates to states and tribes; responsible for issuing permits, and monitoring and enforcing compliance.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Environmental Protection Encouragement Agency (EPEA)
Founded by Michael Braungart in 1987. The Environmental Protection Encouragement Agency applies Cradle to Cradle methodology to design of new processes, products and services. Headquarters are located in Hamburg, Germany.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

environmentally preferable
Products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. This comparison may consider raw materials acquisition, production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance or disposal of the product or service.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

épinglé
A type of velvet fabric woven on a wire loom or épinglé loom. The épinglé velvet is specific by the fact that both loop pile and cut pile can be integrated into the same fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

European Eco-Label (EU-Eco )
A labeling system using a flower symbol to designate products that have been checked by independent bodies and certified compliant with strict ecological and performance criteria.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :www.eco-label.com

 

eutraphication
Excessive growth of algal blooms in streams, lakes and other waterways due to the addition of excessive amounts of plant nutrients (primarily phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon), which often results from fertilizer runoff and the addition of untreated sewage to waterways; causes the depletion of oxygen from the water and, in turn, kills the fish and other oxygen-dependent organisms that live in the water.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS)
Any one of over 366 hazardous chemicals on a list compiled by the EPA to provide a focus for state and local emergency planning.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Fabric widths
Upholstery fabrics are generally manufactured in widths 48″=120 cm, 60″=150 cm. Normal upholstery yardage requirements are based on 50″-54″ goods.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

face
The side of the fabric which is visible when upholstered on furniture.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

faille
A soft, slightly glossy fabric in a rib weave, with a light, flat, crosswise rib or cord made by using heavier yarns in the filling and not the warp

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
The U.S. federal agency with regulatory and enforcement authority directed towards stopping actions that threaten consumers’ opportunities to exercise informed choices.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

felt
A fabric of matted, compressed animal fibers, such as wool or fur, sometimes mixed with vegetable or synthetic fibers.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

fiber
The most basic element in a cloth. Any tough, thread-like substance, natural or man-made, that can be spun, woven, felted, knitted or knotted into a fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

fiber dyeing
Also called stock dyeing, fiber dyeing refers to the dyeing of fibers, or stock, before it is spun into yarn. It is done by putting loose, unspun fibers into large vats containing the dye bath, which is then heated to proper temperature.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Yarn

SOURCE :J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science (9th Edition) by Allen C. Cohen & Ingrid Johnson

 

fiber reactive dye
Used to dye cellulose fibers. Reacting chemically with the molecules of the fibers, resulting in unusually fast, brilliant colors. Also referred to as “reactive dyes”.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

filament
A fiber of indefinite length, either natural (silk) or man-made. Silk filament is the actual thread of a silkworm’s cocoon, while man-made filament is produced by forcing a solution through a spinneret.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

fill
Crosswise yarns in the weave, synonymous with weft.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Fish Toxicity
Several Genera and Species of fish found in lakes, ponds and streams that are part of the food chain are tested for their reaction to chemical exposure. Chemicals that kill fish are considered dangerous to aquatic eco-systems due to the possible food chain effects and food
SOURCE depletion. Fish Toxicity is a measure of a substance’s toxicity when consumed by these various types of fish. A common measuring tool is LC50 (“lethal concentration”), which is the concentration of a substance in the water required to kill fifty (50) percent of the fish test population. If LC50 < 10 mg/L, the substance is considered fish toxic.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

flame retardant
A chemical applied to a fiber, yarn or fabric to reduce its tendency to burn.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

flammability
The measurement of a fabric’s performance when it is exposed to specific
SOURCEs of ignition.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

flannel
A soft plain or twill woven fabric of wool or a blend of wool and cotton or synthetics.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper/p>

flax
A fiber from the Linum plant used to manufacture linen.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

fleece
Fiber sheared from animals (such as sheep) and twisted into yarn for weaving.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

float
Portion of warp or weft that covers two or more adjacent warp or weft threads to form a design.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

For Association Contract Textiles (FACTS)
The Facts icon indicates that a textile has been evaluated by an independent third party certification body, authorized by the Association for Contract Textiles, according to the requirements of the multi-attribute sustainability standard NSF/ANSE 336. The comprehensive examination for Facts assesses both the composition of textiles and the process by which they are manufactured. Once a textile becomes Facts compliant, it can achieve a Facts Silver, Gold or Platinum rating by earning points for additional sustainability criteria.

CATEGORY :

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

foulard
A lightweight twill or plain-woven fabric of silk or silk and cotton, usually having a small printed

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

fringe
An ornamental border consisting of short lengths of hanging threads or tassels, often attached to a separate band.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

frisé
French for curl. Applied to different weaves made of looped, knotted or curled yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

gabardine
A sturdy, tightly woven fabric of cotton, wool or rayon twill.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

galloon
A narrow band or braid used as trimming and commonly made of lace, metallic thread or embroidery.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

georgette
A sheer, strong silk or silk like clothing fabric with a dull, creped surface.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

gingham
Plain weave cotton fabric. Usually yarn dyed and woven to create stripes, checks or plaids.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

glazed
Cotton fabrics such as chintz or tartan treated to give them a polished look.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper.

 

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is a multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Global Warming Potential (GWP)
A manufactured fiber fA scale used to relate a compound to the CO2 equivalents to measure the potential heating effects on the atmosphere.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

grain
An invisible vertical line parallel to the selvage of a fabric. The pattern visible on the outer surface of a hide after the hair has been removed.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

green
An adjective used to describe something that is perceived to be beneficial to the environment.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

GREENGUARD™
A certification and labeling program for interior products and building materials in reference to indoor air quality.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

GreenShield®
A topical stain resistant finish that utilizes 7-10 times fewer fluorocarbons than similar finishes and releases no VOC emissions. The technology is based on amorphous silica nanoparticles that permanently adhere to a fabric in a mesh network that prevents particles from becoming airborne.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

greenhouse gas (GHG)
Certain gases (including water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone and several classes of halogenated carbons that contain fluorine, chlorine and bromine) that allow solar radiation to reach Earth’s surface and become absorbed, yet trap thermal radiation leaving the earth’s surface. Outgoing thermal radiation absorbed by these gases heats the atmosphere. The atmosphere then emits thermal radiation both outward into space and downward to Earth, further warming the surface.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

grenadine
A fine, loosely woven fabric in a leno weave.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

grey goods
Woven fabric as it comes from the loom; undyed, unbleached, unprinted and unfinished. Also called greige goods.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

grinning
The condition in which the ground cloth of a pile fabric becomes visible when it is folded or creased.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

grosgrain
A closely woven silk or rayon fabric with narrow horizontal ribs.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

grospoint
A non-directional uncut pile fabric that is warp-looped and extremely resilient and hard wearing. Made of wool or man-made fibers, it generally has larger loops than a frisé.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

habutai
Smooth, soft, light, plain weave silk originally hand woven in Japan.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

hair
Natural animal fiber other than sheep’s wool or silk.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Half-Life
The amount of time it takes half of an initial concentration of substance to degrade in the environment.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

hand
Touch, drape or “handle” of a fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

harness
A rectangular frame on a loom that holds the heddles through which the warp yarns pass. A loom’s harnesses raise and lower the heddles in predetermined patterns so that the filling yarns can be threaded through the warp sheds to produce the desired weave. Different weaves may employ anywhere from one to forty harnesses.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)
Those pollutants that cause or may cause cancer, other serious health effects (such as reproductive effects or birth defects) or adverse environmental and ecological effects. The EPA is required to control 188 HAPs including dioxin; asbestos; toluene; metals such as cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead; benzene, which is found in gasoline; perchlorethlyene, which is emitted from some dry cleaning facilities; and methylene chloride, which is used as a solvent and paint stripper by a number of industries. Also known as toxic air pollutants.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

hazardous material
Any material or substance, which if improperly handled or disposed of, can cause harm to the health and well-being of humans or the environment.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

hazardous substance
Defined by the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) as a substance, which has the potential, through being used at work, to harm the health or safety of persons in the workplace. (A hazardous substance is, essentially, a hazardous material, but NOHSC uses the term substance.)

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

hazardous waste
Defined by RCRA as any waste that exhibits specific hazardous characteristics such as ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity or toxicity.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary


heavy metals
Any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic at low concentrations. (Examples are mercury, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, thallium and lead). Semi-metallic elements (such as antimony, arsenic, selenium and tellurium) are often included in this classification.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

heddles
The needle-like wires on a loom through which the warp yarns are drawn and which raise and lower those threads during weaving. See harness.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resoures Directory, 1990

 

hemp
A coarse, durable fiber from the bast of a cannabis plant.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

herringbone
A fabric in which the pattern of the weave resembles the skeletal structure of the herring. Made with a broken twill weave that produces a balanced zigzag effect.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

hide
The raw skin of an animal.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

high energy dyed polyester
When a polyester fiber is heated at a high temperature it forces the molecule to open and encapsulate the dye stuff. This process enables the dye to have high color fastness and be resistant to many chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite (bleach).

CATEGORY : Fiber, Finish

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

honeycomb
Weave with the surface resembling the cells of a honeycomb.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

hopsacking
An open basket weave that gets its name from the plain-weave fabric of jute or hemp used for sacking in which hops are gathered.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

houndstooth
A broken twill four-pointed star check

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

huarizo
Bred for its fine fleece from a llama father and alpaca mother.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)
A compound that consists of hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon. The HCFCs are a class of replacements for CFCs. They contain chlorine and thus deplete stratospheric ozone, but to a much lesser extent than CFCs. Production of HCFCs are currently being phased out of production.

CATEGORY : Greev

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Hetate
A manufactured fiber from cellulose acetate

CATEGORY : Greev

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

IMO Wheelmark certificate:
is required for all sea-going yachts and passenger ships that sail under the IMO/MED or MCA. IMO stands for “International Maritime Organization” and approval requirements are harmonized and specifically relate to the fire protection rating of the textile.
 

INCASE®
INCASE® – Also known as Crypton Home was created specifically for upholstery fabrics, offering a bundled solution of “repel and release” stain technology and microbial resistance for the life of the fabric and is to be used when a barrier is not required.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Crypton, INC. Website

 

indoor air pollution
Chemical, physical or biological contaminants in indoor air.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

industrial ecology
An interdisciplinary framework for designing and operating industrial systems as living systems interdependent with natural systems.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

ink safe
A stain shield chemically bonded to Brentano’s polyurethane faux leathers for easy cleaning, especially the removal of ballpoint pen marks.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

International Oeko-Tex Association (Oeko-Tex)
A manufactured fiber from cellulose acetate

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : Oeko-Tex Association

 

International Standards Organization (ISO)
A non-governmental organization located in Geneva, Switzerland, chartered to develop voluntary technical standards that aim to make the development, manufacture and supply of goods and services safer, cleaner and more efficient.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

International Standards Organization 14000/ 14001 (ISO 14000/ ISO 14001)
A group of ISO standards that address environmental issues. Includes standards for Environmental Management Systems (EMS) (ISO 14001), environmental and EMS auditing, environmental labeling, performance evaluation and life-cycle assessment. Compliance results in “ISO 14000 Certification.”

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

International Standards Organization 9000 (ISO 9000)
A group of ISO standards and guidelines that relate to quality management systems. Currently includes three quality standards: ISO 19001: 2000 establishes requirements; ISO 9000: 2000 and ISO 9004: 2000 establishes guidelines. All of these are process standards, not product standards. Compliance results in “ISO 9000 Certification.”

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

iridescence
Changeable color effect usually obtained by contrasting colors in warp and filling yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Irritation of Skin/Mucous Membranes
For the testing of skin irritation with the standard Draize test, rabbits are used. The chemical is applied to the rabbit skin and usually kept in contact for 4 hours. The degree of skin irritation is scored for erythema, eschar and edema formation and corrosive action. These dermal irritation observations are repeated at various intervals after the chemical has been removed. Mucous membrane irritation is measured in a similar manner. Site specific mechanical responses within the respiratory tract and eyes are measured, and a chemical is classified as an irritant based on the conclusions of these tests.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

Jacquard
A woven-in pattern made by special looms which control individual weaving threads in warp to produce complicated patterns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.


jaspe
Upholstery, drapery or suiting fabric which has a series of faint stripes formed by light, medium and dark threads of the same color.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

jute
A coarse, brown fiber used for sacking and cordage.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

keratin
A tough, insoluble protein substance that is the chief structural constituent of wool and hair.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

knitting
The process of making fabric by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

lace
A delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open web like pattern without the aid of a ground fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc

 

lambs wool
The first fleece taken from a sheep up to seven months old. Softer, superior quality than wools taken from older sheep that have been previously shorn.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

lamé
Brocade with metal pattern or ground. Also, plain metal fabric and fabric embroidered with metal.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

lampas
A multi-warped weave with ornamental designs.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc

 

lawn
A sheer, plain cotton weave made of fine combed yarns, often in a high thread count.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED™)
A point-based rating system developed by The U.S. Green Building Council Rating System for Sustainable Development (USGBC) to assess new and existing commercial buildings for a variety of earth-friendly features.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Accredited Professionals (LEED AP)
LEED Professional Accreditation distinguishes building professionals with the knowledge and skills to successfully steward the LEED certification process. LEED Accredited Professionals (LEED APs) have demonstrated a thorough understanding of green building practices and principles and the LEED Rating System. More than 43,000 people have earned the credential since the Professional Accreditation program was launched in 2001.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : www.usgbc.org

 

leather
An animal skin that has been transformed into useful material through tanning.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

leno
A structure in which pairs of warp yarns are twisted around each other between filling yarns, giving open-weave fabrics firmness and durability.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50)
An LC50 value is the concentration of a specific material in the air that will kill 50% of the test subjects (animals, usually) when administered as a single exposure (typically 1 or 4 hours) under specified laboratory conditions. This value allows comparison of the relative toxicity of different materials.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

 

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50)
The median lethal dose (LD50) is the statistically derived median dose of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50 percent of the test animals.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

 

life cycle assessment, life cycle analysis (LCA)
A technique for assessing the potential environmental impacts of a product by examining all the material and energy inputs and outputs at each life cycle stage.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC


life cycle cost (LCC)
The amortized annual cost of a product, including capital costs, installation costs, operating costs, maintenance costs and disposal costs discounted over the lifetime of the product.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

life cycle inventory (LCI)
The part of the LCA process that quantifies the energy, input of raw material and releases of material into the environment that are associated with each stage of production.

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

lightfastness
Resistance to fading to the effects of sun or light.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

linen
Yarn, thread or fabric made of flax fibers. Noted especially for its strength, cool hand and luster.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


Living Building Challenge
A standard launched in 2006 that defines measures of sustainability in the built environment and acts to diminish the gap between current limits and ideal solutions. Advanced by the Cascadia Region Green Building Council and the International Living Future Institute (formerly known as the International Living Building Institute), this certification program covers all building at all scales with the goal of a future that is Socially Just, Culturally Rich and Ecologically Benign.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : International Living Future Institute

 

Living Building Challenge Red List
This list is composed of materials that the International Living Future Institute (formerly known as the International Living Building Institute) and the Cascadia Region Green Building Council believe should be phased out of production due to health/toxicity concerns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : International Living Future Institute

 

llama
The soft, strong underfleece of the llama, a South American animal similar to but smaller than a camel.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

loft
The bulk or resilience of a fabric, yarn or fiber.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

loom
A weaving machine that produces textiles by interlacing warp and filling yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Lurex
Non-tarnishable aluminum yarns.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

man-made fiber
Any fiber that is manufactured whether natural or synthetic in origin.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

marl
Two yarns of different colors twisted around each other.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Martindale Test
A wear abrasion test used extensively in Europe. The fabric’s warp and weft are abraded at the same time.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

matelassé
An intricately woven fabric created with two sets of warp and filler threads in a double weave giving an embossed, puckered or quilted effect. From the French word meaning “to quilt” or “to pad”.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

material
A group of one or more chemicals that together comprise a component or input to a finished product.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

 

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
A document required by OSHA that contains information about hazardous chemicals in the workplace in order to insure the safety and health of the user at all stages of a material’s manufacture, storage, use and disposal.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

MBDC
MBDC is a product and process design firm that was founded in 1995 by William McDonough and Dr. Michael Braungart to promote and shape what they call the “Next Industrial Revolution” through the introduction of a new design paradigm called Cradle to Cradle Design, and the implementation of eco-effective design principles.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

 

McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC)
MBDC is a product and process design firm that was founded in 1995 by William McDonough and Dr. Michael Braungart to promote and shape what they call the “Next Industrial Revolution” through the introduction of a new design paradigm called Cradle to Cradle Design, and the implementation of eco-effective design principles.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : www.mbdc.com

 

mercerization
A treatment applied to cotton yarn and/or fabric to improve luster and increase the receptiveness of the fiber to dyes.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Finish

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

merino
Wool from the merino sheep used to make fine, soft fabrics resembling cashmere.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

mesh
Any fabric woven or knitted with an open texture, fine or coarse.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

mohair
Long, fine hair fiber from the angora goat.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

moire
A finish or process applied to fabrics in which the warp has yarn of harder twist than the filling. The moire effect resembles water ripples and is produced by engraved rollers, heat, pressure, steam and chemicals.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

moleskin
A heavy sateen-weave, often napped or sheared to give a suede effect.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

monk’s cloth
A heavy, loosely woven basketweave in solid colors, with stripes or plaids.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

monofilament
A single-ply, untwisted yarn that may be either a man-made fiber extruded from a chemical solution or the single thread of the silkworm.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

mossy crepe
Various crepes constructed to have a mossy look.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

motif
The feature or subject of a composition or work.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

mourning crepe
A dull, semi-sheer crepe which often has a moire effect.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

mousseline
A fine, sheer fabric resembling muslin.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

muga
One of the best wild silks, grown in India; means light brown.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

muslin
Plain-weave sturdy cotton fabrics.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

mutagen
This is a substance that may cause hereditary disorders in offspring due to mutations in the chromosomes of the male or female reproductive cells. These mutations can be alterations in the structure or number of chromosomes, or nucleotide substitutions known as point mutations.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

nacre velvet
Velvet with back of one color and pile of another, resulting in a changeable, pearly appearance.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

nap
The cut-pile or fuzzy surface finish of a cloth.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

napped
Various fabrics finished with a brushing that raises the surface.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
Air quality standards required by the Clean Air Act that monitor six pollutants, known as criteria pollutants, considered harmful to public health and the environment. The Clean Air Act established two types of national air quality standards: primary standards set limits to protect public health, including the health of sensitive populations such as asthmatics, children and the elderly; and secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare, including protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops, vegetation and buildings. The EPA sets and monitors the levels for these standards.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
An act that requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions. To meet this requirement, federal agencies prepare a detailed statement known as an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). EPA reviews and comments on EISs prepared by other federal agencies, maintains a national filing system for all EISs, and assures that its own actions comply with NEPA.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

 

needle point
Simple stitch embroidery completely covering mesh or canvas grounds.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :extile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

ninon
A sheer fabric of silk, rayon or nylon made in a variety of tight, smooth weaves or open, lacy patterns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc

 

noil
A short fiber combed from long fibers during the preparation of textile yarns.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

nonpoint source pollution
Pollution caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and underground sources of drinking water.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

nonpoint source pollution (NPS Pollution)
Pollution caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and underground sources of drinking water.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

nonrenewable energy
An energy source, such as oil or natural gas, or a natural resource, such as a metallic ore, that cannot be replenished or replaced after it has been used.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

non-woven
A material made of fibers in a web or mat held together by a bonding agent that is not woven, knitted or spun.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :extile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) began on January 1, 1994. This agreement removes most barriers to trade and investment among the United States, Canada and Mexico.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE :USDA Foreign Agricultural Service


novelty yarns
Yarns spun with varied twists, tufts and loops to achieve textural effects.

CATEGORY : Yarn

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

NSF International (NSF)
NSF International is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides standards development, product certification, auditing, education and risk management for public health and the environment. Manufacturers, regulators and consumers alike look to NSF International for the development of public health standards and certification that help protect the world’s food, water, health and consumer products.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : NSF International

 

NSF/ANSI 336 Certification
Sustainability Assessment for Commercial Furnishings Fabric addresses the environmental, economic and social aspects of furnishing fabric products, including woven, non-woven, bonded and knitted fabrics used for upholstery (e.g. office and hotel furniture), vertical (e.g. drapery or panel systems fabric) and decorative top of bed applications (e.g. bedspreads) commonly used in institutional, hospitality and office settings. The standard also incorporates life cycle assessment criteria, which measures inputs, outputs and environmental impacts of textile products across their entire lifespan (cradle to grave).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : NSF International

 

nubbed fabric
A fabric decorated with novelty yarn containing slubs, knots, beads or lumps.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :extile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

nylon
A generic name for manufactured fiber made of synthetic polyamides (a type of nitrogen-containing polymer). Strong and elastic, it can be formed into fibers, sheets or bristles, and is used to make fabrics, plastics and molded products.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
The federal agency established in 1971, to ensure safe and healthful workplaces in the U.S. through leadership, enforcement, outreach, education and compliance assistance

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

Octanol-Water Partitioning Coefficient (Pow)
A measure of the tendency of a chemical to partition between an aliphatic hydrocarbon system and an aqueous system. Often used as a predictor for bioaccumulation potential.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

 

Oeko-Tex
A European standard for the impact of textiles on human ecology and the environment

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

ondule
Wavy effect in a fabric achieved by weaving.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

optimization
An act, process or methodology of making something (as a design, system or decision) as fully perfect, functional or effective as possible.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

organdy
Sheer, plain cotton weave made of fine combed yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

organza
French for transparent, crisp silk organdy.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

ottoman
Heavy corded silk or synthetic fabric with larger and rounder ribs than a faille. Fillings are usually cotton or wool, and should be completely covered by the silk or man-made fiber warp.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

overplaid
Double plaid in which weave or color effect is arranged in blocks of the same or different sizes, one over the other.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

oxford cloth
A soft, somewhat porous cotton shirting fabric with a silk like luster finish. Made in a basketweave construction, and available in colors or solids. The cloth tends to soil easily because of the soft bulky filling yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

ozone
A bluish gas that is harmful to breathe. Nearly 90% of the Earth’s ozone is in the stratosphere and is referred to as the ozone layer. Ozone absorbs a band of ultraviolet radiation called UVB that is particularly harmful to living organisms. The ozone layer prevents most UVB from reaching the ground.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

ozone depleting substance (ODS)
Substances that release chlorine or bromine atoms when they break down which then deplete ozone. CFCs, HCFCs, halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform are ODSs, which are generally very stable in the troposphere and only degrade under intense ultraviolet light in the stratosphere.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

ozone-depletion potential (ODP)
This is the measure of the ozone-depleting characteristics of the substance. Ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere leads to an increase of UV-radiation on the Earth and, as a result, an increase in skin cancer. CFCs are included here.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : MBDC

package dyeing
The dyeing of yarns wound on spools.

CATEGORY : Yarn

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

paisley
A paisley or paisley pattern is a droplet-shaped vegetal motif of Persian origin similar to half of the Yin yang symbol, or the leaf of the Indian bodhi tree or the mango tree; or to a leech. The western name derives from the town of Paisley, in central Scotland.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

paillette
From the French for sequin. Generally larger than sequins.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

panama
Plain woven hopsacking of coarse-yarn basket weave, plain or in two colors, producing a texture similar to that of panama hats.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

panne
A finish usually applied to either satin or velvet in order to give the surface a high luster.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

peau de soie
A medium to heavy drapeable fabric with a satin weave and delustered finish; a traditional fabric for wedding dresses.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : denverfabrics.com

 

pebble
An irregular or rough surface with a pebbly look, as in a pebble crepe.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

persistence
This is a measure of a substance’s ability to remain as a discrete chemical entity in the environment for a prolonged period of time. A common measuring tool for persistence is “half-life” (t1/2), which is the amount of time required for half of the substance to break down. If halflife is greater than 30 days in the air, or if half-life is greater than 50 days in soil, water, or any other media, the substance is considered to be persistent.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

persistent bioaccumulative toxin (PBT)
Chemicals that are toxic, persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in food chains and therefore pose risks to human health and ecosystems.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

photochemical oxidant potential
The release of harmful substances that react to form ground-level ozone, resulting in vegetation damage and human health problems.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

photographic prints
Made from photoengraved rollers that transfer photographs to cloth. Several processes, all adapted from color printing on paper.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

pick
One thread of warp or filling.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

piece dyeing
A common method of dyeing that allows flexibility to meet color demands, i.e. a material dyed in the piece after weaving.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

Pigment Dye
Pigments are colored, black, white or fluorescent particulate organic or inorganic solids which usually are insoluble in, and essentially physically and chemically unaffected by, the vehicle or substrate in which they are incorporated. They alter appearance by selective absorption and/or by scattering of light. Pigments are usually dispersed in vehicles or substrates for application, as for instance in the manufacture or inks, paints, plastics or other polymeric materials. Pigments retain a crystal or particulate structure throughout the coloration process.

CATEGORY : Dye

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

pigment finish
Color applied to leather in solid particles (pigments) that cover the surface.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

pile fabric
Fabric with cut or uncut loops which stand up densely on the surface. Not to be confused with napped fabrics, which have brushed surfaces. Velvets, plushes, velveteens and corduroy are cut pile fabrics. Epingles are uncut pile fabrics.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

pile weave
A three-dimensional surface construction in which cut or uncut loops protrude from the ground cloth. The loops may be made of warp or filling yarns, and be produced by a double wave or with wires. The wire method uses round-tipped wires to raise loops for uncut pile, and sharp-edged cut wires for cut pile.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

pilling
The formation of little fuzzy balls on a fabric surface caused by the rubbing off of a fiber’s loose ends that are too long or strong to break away.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

pincheck
A very this check

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

pique
Refers to a weaving style, as in “pique cotton”, which is characterized by raised parallel cords or fine ribbing (for example, in the collar of a polo shirt or tennis shirt). Twilled cotton (see Twill) or corded cotton are close relatives.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

plaid
A pattern of colored stripes or bars crossing each other at right angles.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

plain weave
The most simple method of interlacing warp and weft threads to make a cloth. Each filling thread passes alternately under and over the warp yarns to produce a balanced construction. Also known as ‘tabby,’ this is a strong weave, inexpensive to produce, and the best ground for printing. However, if the thread count is low, the fabric may be too weak for upholstery.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

plastic
Any of various organic compounds produced by polymerization, capable of being molded, extruded, cast into various shapes and films or drawn into filaments used as textile fibers.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

plied yarn
A yarn formed by twisting together two or more single strands.

CATEGORY : Yarn

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

plisse
Usually a print cloth treated with chemicals that cause part of the cloth to shrink, creating a permanently crinkled surface.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

 

plush
Warp pile fabric originally made from silk or wool that is distinct from velvet because of its longer and less dense pile. Modern plushes can be made of polyester.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

ply
An individual strand of yarn.

CATEGORY : Yarn

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

point source pollution
Pollution that originates from specific, known sources such as municipal and industrial facilities, bypasses and overflows from municipal sewage systems, non-permitted and illegal dischargers, and water that is generated through oil and gas operations.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

pollution prevention
Source reduction as defined in the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13102), and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through: (a) increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water or other resources; or (b) protection of natural resources by conservation.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

polyamide
A polymer containing monomers of amides joined by peptide bonds. They can occur naturally (proteins, such as wool and silk), or can be made artificially (nylons, aramids, and sodium polyaspartates).

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

polyester
A synthetic polymer fiber manufactured from coal, water and petroleum. Strong, durable and wrinkle resistant, it is often blended with other fibers. Major disadvantages include inability to breathe and tendency to pill.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
A thermoplastic material that is clear, tough and has good gas and moisture barrier properties. Used in soft drink bottles and other blow molded containers, although sheet applications are increasing. Cleaned, recycled PET flakes and pellets are used in some spinning fiber for carpet yarns, fiberfill and geo-textiles. Other applications include strapping, molding compounds and both food and non-food containers.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

polymer
A synthetic material from which fibers are formed.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

polypropylene
The basic fiber forming substance for olefin.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Synthetic thermoplastic polymer made from vinyl chloride. In addition to its stable physical properties, PVC has excellent transparency, chemical resistance, long-term stability, good weatherability, flow characteristics and stable electrical properties. However, its stability makes it nearly environmentally indestructible. PVC also releases hydrochloric acid and other toxic compounds when produced, used or burned..

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

pongee
A plain woven, light weight or medium-weight fabric made from wild silk. Almost always pale or dark tan, but now sometimes printed, bleached and dyed in colors.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

poodle cloth
Loopy boucle or knotted yarn cloth that looks like the coat of a poodle.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

post-consumer
An adjective used to describe all or part of a consumer product that has reached the end of its useful life in that form.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

post-consumer material
A material or finished product that has served its intended use and has been discarded for disposal or recovery, having completed its life as a consumer item.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

post-consumer recycling
The recycling of materials generated from residential and consumer waste for use in new or similar purposes, such as converting wastepaper from offices into corrugated boxes or soda bottles into polyester fiber.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

post-industrial material
Recovered industrial and manufacturing materials that are diverted from municipal solid waste for the purpose of collection, recycling and disposition. Post-industrial materials are part of the broader category of recovered materials and include print overruns, over issue publications and obsolete inventories.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

poult de soie
A silk fabric in plain weave with heavy filling strands forming cross ribs, sometimes called a Faille Taffeta.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

printing
The process of producing designs of one or more colors on a fabric using different methods, such as roller, block, screen, and several color techniques, such as direct, discharge, and resist.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klappe

 

product of consumption
A product designed for safe and complete return to the environment, which becomes nutrients for living systems. The product of consumption design strategy allows products to offer effectiveness without the liability of materials that must be recycled or “managed” after use.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

Product of Service
A product that is used by the customer, formally or in effect, but owned by the manufacturer. The manufacturer maintains ownership of valuable material assets for continual reuse while the customer receives the service of the product without assuming its material liability. Products that can utilize valuable but potentially hazardous materials can be optimized as Products of Service

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

product stewardship
The responsible and ethical management of the health, safety and environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

puckered cloths
A term adopted for pebbled, crimped, plisse or crackled nylon cloths.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

qiviut
Underwool of the domesticated musk ox that is considered the rarest and most luxurious wool fiber in the world. Fleece is not shorn from the musk ox, but it is shed naturally and removed from the guard hairs as it becomes visible

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

quaternary cleaner
A sanitizing cleaner, the active ingredient of which is quaternary ammonium compound. The active ingredient is cationic. Its primary use is for the cleaning and disinfecting of hard surfaces.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Hillyard – The Cleaning RESOURCEs

quilting
Two or more layers of cloth with padding between that is stitched by hand, machine, or chemical methods, usually in a pattern.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

rabbit hair
Hair from the common rabbit or hare. Occasionally blended in various weaves and knits for softness or special effects.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

radium
A smooth, soft-luster plain-weave silk or rayon fabric similar to habutai.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

radzimir
A fine, lustrous silk fabric with embedded cross-ribs. Softer, less crisp and duller than taffeta.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

railroading
Applying fabric to furniture so that the weft runs vertically, avoiding intermediate seam detailing.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

ramie
A tall, tropical Asian perennial herb, Boehmeria nivea, cultivated for its fibrous stems. Ramie is the fiber extracted from this plant, resembling flax. Used chiefly for table linen.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

ratine
A loosely woven fabric with a rough nubby texture. Also called eponge, frisé and sponge cloth.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

raveling
The fraying of yarn at the cut edge of a cloth.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

raw silk
The fabric or yarn made from untreated silk as reeled from a cocoon

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

rayon
A man-made fiber produced by forcing a cellulose solution through fine spinnerets and solidifying the resulting filaments. Also referred to as cuprammonium and viscose.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

reactive dyes
Used to dye cellulose fibers. Reacting chemically with the molecules of the fibers, resulting in unusually fast, brilliant colors. Also referred to as “fiber reactive dyes”.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

reclaimed polymer
Synthetic waste from any source such as carpet, fabric, yarn or soda bottles that is melted down and re-extruded.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

reclamation
A smooth, soft-luster plain-weave silk or rayon fabric similar to habutai.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

recovered materials
Waste materials and by-products which have been recovered or diverted from solid waste, but the term does not include those materials and by-products generated from, and commonly reused within, an original manufacturing process (42 U.S.C. 6903 (19)).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

recyclability
The ability of a product or material to be recovered from, or otherwise diverted from, the solid waste stream for the purpose of recycling.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

recycled product
A product made in whole or part from material recovered from the waste stream.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

recycling
The series of activities, including collection, separation and processing, by which products or other materials are recovered from the solid waste stream. The products are then used in the form of raw materials in the manufacture of new products, other than fuel for producing heat or power by combustion.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

reed
The comblike device on a loom through which the warp ends pass.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical (REACH)
REACH is a new European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances. The new law entered into force on 1 June 2007. The aim of REACH is to improve the protection of human health and the environment through the better and earlier identification of the intrinsic properties of chemical substances. At the same time, innovative capability and competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry should be enhanced. The benefits of the REACH system will come gradually, as more and more substances are phased into REACH.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : European Commission

 

renewable
Capable of being replaced by natural ecological cycles or sound management practices.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

renewable energy
Energy derived from sources that do not become depleted, such as the sun, wind, oceans, rivers, eligible biomass and heat from the earth’s interior.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

reprocessed fiber
Fiber made from fabric which was never put into use.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

resilience
The property of a textile material to recover from a deformed state.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

resin
A synthetic finish applied to fabric to add water repellence, resistance to crushing or luster.

CATEGORY : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

resist dyeing
A pattern and ground created by methods used to “resist” or prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

resist prints
Made by printing the designs using substance that resists dye stuffs. The fabric is often piece dyed to obtain the wanted color.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
The federal statute that is an amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act (of 1965). The four primary goals of RCRA are as follows: protection of human health and the environment from potential hazards associated with hazardous waste disposal; conservation of energy and natural resources; reduction of the amount of hazardous waste generated; and enforcement of environmentally sound waste management practices. Adopted by Congress in 1976.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

retting
Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fiber from the stem. It is used in the production of fiber from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE : Wikipedia

 

reusable
Capable of being used again after salvaging, special treatment or processing.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

reverse twill weave
A patterned twill weave using both right and left hand twills.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

rib
Usually a straight cord formed by a heavy thread, length wise, crosswise or diagonal.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

ribbon
A narrow woven fabric with woven selvage for trimming or decoration.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

sateen
A cotton cloth made in a satin weave, often treated with high luster and crease-resistant finishes.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

satin finish
A glossy finish given to many fabrics.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

satin weave
Basic weave, characterized by floats running in the warp direction in such a manner that gives the fabric a gloss, luster or shine.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Schiffi
A machine for embroidering and making heavy venise lace.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Scientific Certification Systems (SCS)
SCS, an international organization, provides independent certification and verfication of environmental, sustainable, stewardship, food quality, food safety and food purity claims.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : SCS

 

Scotchgard™
A registered brand name for a stain-repellent and rain-repellent finish.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Scottish plaid
A coarse, very durable twilled woolen fabric made of Scottish native wool.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

screen prints
Similar to stencil work, except that a screen is used. Certain areas of the screen are treated to take dye, others to resist dye. A paste is forced through the screen onto the fabric by a squeegee to form the pattern.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

seam slippage
The movement of yarns in a fabric that occurs when it is pulled apart at a seam.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

seconds
Imperfect fabrics with weave, finish or dyeing flaws.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

seersucker
A thin, all-cotton fabric, commonly striped.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

selvage
Heavy reinforced outside woven edges of cloth.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

sensitization
The ability of a substance to induce an immunologically mediated (allergic) response.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

sequin
A small, sparkly plastic disc used for decoration.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

serge
A smooth-finished fabric in a balanced twill weave that is the same on both the face and back.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

serpentine crepe
A plain weave with lengthwise crinkled effect. Also in a ribbed form with heavy filling in the ribs.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

shading
The apparent graduations of color in cut-pile fabrics that are caused by variations in light reflection. This is not a defect, but a desirable characteristic of these fabrics.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

shantung
A plain silk weave originally made from wild silk in Shantung China on hand looms, characterized by a rough, nubbed surface caused by the slubs in the yarn.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

shearing
A mechanical process that cuts projecting fibers from the fabric face. It is especially used for wool and other fabrics with a tendency to pill.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

sheer
Any very thin almost transparent fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Shetland
Applies only to wool from a sheep raised in the Shetland Isle of Scotland. Fabrics made from this fiber are usually lightweight and warm, with a raised finish and soft hand.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

shibori
The Japanese term for a myriad of resist dyeing techniques, including Western tie-dye

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

shrinkage
Treatments to remove most of a fabric’s tendency to shrink. More common techniques include sponging, steaming, machine shrinking, cold-water shrinking and resin applications.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

shuttle
The device on a loom that carries the filling yarn through the shed to interlace it with the warp.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
Instances in which building occupants experience acute health and discomfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified. The complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone, or may be widespread throughout the building. In contrast, the term building related illness (BRI) is used when symptoms of diagnosable illness are identified and can be attributed directly to airborne building contaminants.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

silicone finish
A liquid fluorocarbon treatment that is either sprayed or padded on to the fabric to make it resistant to water and oil-borne stains. See Scotchgard™ and Teflon™.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

silk
A natural protein fiber. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibers’ triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

sisal
A hard fiber obtained from the sword like leave of the sisal plant.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

sizing

  • A starch applied to warp threads to strengthen them for the strains of the weaving process. It is removed by scouring during finishing.
  • A starch applied to cotton or linen cloth that is removed when the fabric is washed.

A cotton cloth made in a satin weave, often treated with high luster and crease-resistant finishes.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

skein-dyed yarns
Spun or filament yarns of any natural or man-made fiber dyed in the form of hanks or skeins.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

skin fiber
Skin fiber or bast fiber is plant fiber collected from the phloem (the “inner bark” or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonic, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. Most of the technically important bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, rattan, bamboo.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Wikipedia

 

skin penetration potential
A measure of the ability of a compound to assist in the absorption of chemicals into the skin.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

slippage
Sliding or slipping of warp threads along filling threads, or vice versa, in a fabric of smooth yarns or loose weave.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

slub
Soft, thick, uneven nub in a yarn that gives decorative textured effect to a weave.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

solid waste
Non-liquid, non-soluble materials from sources ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that may contain complex and hazardous substances. Solid wastes also include sewage sludge, agricultural refuse, demolition wastes and mining residues. Technically, solid waste also refers to liquids and gases in containers.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

solution dyeing
The coloring of a synthetic solution before it is extruded into filament form. This method achieves a high degree of colorfastness; also called dope dyeing.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

source reduction
Any practice: (a) reducing the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment or disposal; and (b) reducing the hazards to the public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants or contaminants.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

space dyeing
The process of dyeing a single yarn or filament with two or more colors at regular or irregular intervals. Filament yarns are usually printed while spun yarns are dipped in different dye baths to obtain various hues

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

spandex
A synthetic fiber or fabric made from a polymer containing polyurethane, used in the manufacture of elastic clothing.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

spinning
The process of twisting staple fibers into single-ply yarn, or of drawing liquid through a spinneret to produce synthetic monofilaments.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

spun-silk
Yarn made of silk broken by the emergence of mature silk moths from cocoons.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

stabilizing
Any process which prevents fabrics from shrinking or stretching.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
Standard Industrial Classification codes indicate the company’s type of business. These codes are also used in the Division of Corporation Finance as a basis for assigning review responsibility for the company’s filings

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE : US Securities and Exchange Commission

 

staple
The length of the fiber. Usually short lengths rather than one continuous strand or filament.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

stock dyeing
Also called fiber dyeing, stock dyeing refers to the dyeing of fibers, or stock, before it is spun into yarn. It is done by putting loose, unspun fibers into large vats containing the dye bath, which is then heated to proper temperature.

CATEGORY : Fibre, Yarn

SOURCE :J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science (9th Edition) by Allen C. Cohen & Ingrid Johnson

 

strié
Irregular streaks in a fabric of practically the same color as the background, from the French “stripe” or “streak”.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

stripe
A long, straight region of a single color.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

suede
A general term for leather with a wearing surface finished to a fine velvet-like nap.

CATEGORY : Fibre

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990


suedecloth
A woven fabric with a flat, napped surface finished to resemble suede

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

 

superfund
The U.S. government’s federal program to clean up the nation’s uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The EPA administers the Superfund program in cooperation with individual states and tribal governments. The federal office that oversees management of the program is the EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
Federal statute (of 1986) that increased the size of the Superfund trust fund for cleanup activities and increased the authority of the EPA in enforcement and cleanup activities. Title III of SARA is known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (see EPCRA).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

surah
A soft twilled fabric of silk or of a blend of silk and rayon.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

sustainability
The characteristic of a product, material or process to be sustainable.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

sustainable
Of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

sustainable development
That which meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (The United Nations Brundtland Commission, 1987).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

sustainable manufacturing
Manufacturing processes that have no negative impact on natural ecosystems or resources.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

sustainable practice
A practice (such as manufacturing) that maintains a given condition without destroying or depleting natural resources.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

sustainable product
A product that has no negative impact on natural ecosystems or resources.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE : ACT Glossary

 

swatch
A small piece of cloth used as a sample of a fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

synthetic fiber
A textile fiber made from a petrochemical rather than natural base. All synthetic fibers are man-made, but not all man-made fibers are synthetic.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

taffeta
A lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the fill. It has a crisp hand, lots of body and may appear iridescent.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :fabriclink.com

 

tanning
The process of converting hide into leather by treating the skin with such agents as vegetable tannens or chromium salts.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

tapa cloth
A fabric made in the Pacific Islands from the bark of the paper mulberry tree. Ranges in texture from fine muslin to tough and leathery; can be bleached, dyed and printed.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

tapestry
A heavy cloth woven with rich, often varicolored designs or scenes, usually hung on walls for decoration and sometimes used to cover furniture.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

tassel
A bunch of loose threads or cords bound at one end and hanging free at the other, used as an ornament on curtains or clothing, for example.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

technical metabolism
Modeled on natural systems, the technical metabolism is MBDC’s term for the processes of human industry that maintain and perpetually reuse valuable synthetic and mineral materials in closed loops.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

technical nutrient
A material that remains in a closed-loop system of manufacture, reuse and recovery (the technical metabolism), maintaining its value through many product life cycles.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

Teflon™
A registered brand name for a stain-resistant finish applied to fabric.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

teratogen
A substance shown to cause damage to the embryo or fetus through exposure by the mother (MAK-list: Pregnancy risk group, category A).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

teratogen-suspected
Currently available information indicates that a risk of damage to the embryo or fetus can be considered probable when the mother is exposed to this substance (MAK-list: Pregnancy risk group, category B).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

terephthalic acid
Para-phthalic acid, [C6H4(COOH2)]. a white crystalline water-insoluble carboxylic acid used in making polyester resins, fibers and films by combination with glycols.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

terrestrial toxicity
The use or release of substances that have toxic impact on land species.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

terry cloth
A pile fabric (usually cotton) with uncut loops on both sides; extremely water absorbent and used to make bath towels and bath robes.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

textile
Any fiber or yarn, natural or man-made, or any fabric made from these materials.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

textured
A generic term for a variety of bulked, loopy or crimped yarns that have greater volume and surface interest.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

The Natural Step (TNS)
An international organization founded in Sweden in 1989 that uses a science-based, systems framework to help organizations, individuals and communities take steps towards sustainability

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

The Next Industrial Revolution
This emerging movement of production and commerce eliminates the concept of waste, uses energy from renewable
SOURCEs and celebrates cultural and biological diversity. The promise of the Next Industrial Revolution is a system of production that fulfills desires for economic and ecological abundance and social equity in both the short and long terms becoming sustaining (not just sustainable) for all generations.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)
A type of polyurethane with notable strength and elasticity that is also less flammable compared to other polyurethane fabrics.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Green

SOURCE :Brentano, Inc.

 

thread
Usually a stand of yarn that has been plied, twisted and finished for smoothness, used in sewing.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ)
The amount of an extremely hazardous substance present at a facility above which the facility’s owner/operator must give emergency planning notification to local, state and federal emergency planning commissions.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

tie-dye
A method of resist dyeing in which parts of the fabric are tightly wound with yarns or tied into knots in selected areas. When the fabric is placed in a dyebath, the covered and knotted areas are protected from the dye.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Understanding Textiles (7th ed.) by Billie J. Collier, Martin J. Bide & Phyllis G. Tortora

 

toile
A French term for a sheer fabric such as linen or cotton.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
TSS represents the total amount of solid matter in a representative water sample that is retained on a membrane filter. It includes all sediment and other constituents that are fluid suspended. A commonly used method for measuring water pollution.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

toxic air pollutant
Poisonous substances in the air that come from natural
SOURCEs (for example, radon gas from the ground) or from manmade
SOURCEs (for example, chemical compounds given off by factory smokestacks) and can harm the environment or human health.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)
An EPA database (available to the public) that contains information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported annually by certain covered industry groups and by federal facilities. This inventory was established under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) and expanded by the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
The federal statute (of 1976) that authorized the EPA to track the 75,000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the United States. EPA repeatedly screens these chemicals and can require reporting or testing of those that may pose an environmental or human-health hazard. EPA can ban the manufacture and import of chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

toxic waste
If a threshold concentration of one of fourteen substances listed by RCRA is present in an extract of a waste stream, the entire waste stream is classified as toxic waste and is subject to regulation as a hazardous waste (under the RCRA definition, 40 CFR Part 261.24). The list contains several synthetic organic chemicals and toxic metals such as lead, chromium and mercury

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :

 

toxicity – acutely
A measure of how poisonous or “deadly” a substance is during initial exposure. A common measuring tool for acute toxicity is LD50 (“lethal dose”), which is the dose required to kill 50 percent of the test animals. If LD50 < 200 mg/kg, the substance is named “acutely toxic”.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

toxicity – chronic
This is a measure of how poisonous a substance can become over time with repeated exposure. A substance may have low acute toxicity (i.e., little harmful effects from the initial exposure) but may become poisonous over time with repeated exposure. This may be due to accumulation of the substance or due to repeated minor damaging of target organs.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
A commonly used test for determining the potential of certain metals and chemicals for their potential to leach out of an unlined disposal site into groundwater at toxic levels; identified in RCRA, 40 CFR Part 261.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

Trevira CS
A type a polyester yarn that is inherently flame retardant.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Trevira CS Website

 

tricot
French for warp-knitted fabric, usually flat-knitted with fine ribs on the face and ribs on the back.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Tri-sistant
Tri-sistant finish is Brentano’s brand name, cross-linked stain resistant treatment. Comparable to other cross-linked finishes currently on the market, Tri-sistant does not contain PFOS, PFOA, or PFCs. Tri-sistant contains C-6 fluorocarbon chemistry and is chemically bonded to the fibers in the fabric thus producing a much longer lasting stain resistant finish.

CATEGORY : Finish

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

 

tufted fabric
Fabric decorated with short clusters of elongated strands of yarn. Made by hooked needles into fabric structures or by high-speed tufting machines.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

tulle
A fine, often starched net of silk, rayon or nylon, used especially for veils, tutus or gowns.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

tussah
General term for uncultivated or wild silk, specifically referencing the silk filaments from the tussah worms of India or China. Filaments are coarser, crisper, stronger, more irregular and brownish in color compared to cultivated silk.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

tweed
A coarse, rugged, often nubby woolen fabric made in any of various twill weaves and used chiefly for casual suits and coats.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

twill
A weave with diagonal ribs. Diagonals may be set at sharp blunt angles, embedded or raised. Important types of twills are flannels, serges, gabardines and surahs.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

twist
The turning of fibers or yarns around their axes, expressed in number of turns per unit length.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)
A coalition of representatives from the building industry that promotes buildings that are environmentally responsible, profitable and are healthful places to live and work.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

unfinished
Fabrics left as they come off the loom.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Universal Hazardous Waste (UHW)
Certain hazardous, widely generated materials such as batteries, pesticides and thermostats. The EPA adopted the Universal Waste Rule (1993), which amended the Re
SOURCE Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations in order to allow for streamlined management of this category of hazardous wastes (58 FR 9346).

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

unmarketables
Materials to be eliminated from human use because they cannot be maintained safely in either biological or technical metabolisms.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

Upholstered Furniture Action Council (UFAC)
The Upholstered Furniture Action Council was founded in 1978 to make upholstered furniture more resistant to ignition from smoldering cigarettes. It is an all-industry, voluntary compliance system designed to increase protection for consumers.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Upholstered Furniture Action Council

vat-dyed
Material dyed by insoluble vat colors produced on the fabric by oxidation. Considered the most resistant to the effects of washing and sunlight. Originally applied to fabrics in big wooden vats.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

v-construction
A double-weave construction for cut-pile fabrics in which the pile yarns are caught by one shot of weft.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

velours
A closely napped fabric resembling velvet, used chiefly for clothing and upholstery.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

velvet
A warp pile fabric with short-cut close pile that gives a smooth rich surface, soft to the touch. Effect is obtained by weaving two faces together and shearing apart. One type of velvet has an uncut pile. Pile may be chemically dissolved to leave patterns on a chiffon or taffeta ground. Also pile may be pressed flat, as in a panné velvet.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

velveteen
Cotton or rayon pile fabric with short, close filling loops cut by sharp knives to create the velvety pile. Unlike velvet that is woven face to face, velveteen is woven singly.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

venise
A point lace without net background. The design is usually embroidered ground removed later by a chemical process that leaves only the embroidery.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

vicuna
A llama-like animal of the Andes. Expensive and scarce, it is considered the finest classified wool. Sale of this fiber is regulated by the Peruvian government. Naturally a reddish brown color, silky luster, with a soft, lush hand.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

vinyl
Any of various typically tough, flexible, shiny plastics, often used for coverings and clothing.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

virgin wool
Wool that has never been used or reclaimed from any spun, woven, knitted, felted, manufactured or used product.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

viscose
A manufactured fiber made of regenerated cellulose, most commonly obtained from wood pulp. The European word for Rayon.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

voile
A light, plain weave, sheer fabric of cotton, rayon, silk or wool used especially for making dresses and curtains.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

volatile organic compound (VOC)
Any compound that contains carbon and becomes a gas at room temperature. VOC emissions are regulated because they contribute to smog formation. The most common
SOURCEs of VOC emissions are from storage and use of liquid and gaseous fuels, the storage and use of solvents and the combustion of fuels and can include housekeeping and maintenance products and building and furnishing materials. In sufficient quantities VOC emissions can cause eye, nose, and throat irritations, headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, memory impairment; some are known animal carcinogens; some are suspected or known human carcinogens.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

waffle cloth
A fabric similar to pique in texture and usually made of cotton, has a honey-comb weave made on dobby loom.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

wale
In knit fabrics, a column of loops lying lengthwise in the fabric. The number of wales per inch is a measure of the fineness of the fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

warp knits
A kind of knitting in which a number of threads are chained with one or more contiguous threads on either side. Resistant to runs and relatively easy to sew.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

warp prints
Usually a plain weave, the warp yarns are printed before the filling is inserted. The fabric has a very fuzzy design when design is distorted as fabric is woven.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

warp-faced fabric
A woven cloth in which the warp yarns predominate over the filling yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

washable
Capable of being washed without ruining or distorting the fabric.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

waste equals food
A principle of natural systems and MBDC that eliminates the concept of waste. In this design strategy, all materials are viewed as continuously valuable, circulating in closed loops of production, use and recycling.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :MBDC

 

waste prevention
Any change in the design, manufacturing, purchase or use of materials or products (including packaging) to reduce their amount or toxicity before they are discarded. Waste prevention also refers to the reuse of products or materials.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

waste reduction
Preventing or decreasing the amount of waste being generated through waste prevention, recycling or purchasing recycled and environmentally preferable products.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

wastewater
Water carrying dissolved or suspended solids from homes, farms, businesses and industries.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

water-repellent fabric
Cloth that is impervious to water, but still “breathes.”

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

w-construction
Water carrying dissolved or suspended solids from homes, farms, businesses and industrie

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

water-repellent fabric
Cloth that is impervious to water, but still “breathes.”

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

w-construction
A double-weave construction for cut-pile fabrics in which the pile yarns are caught and woven through a series of three weft yarns.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

wear test

A test for fabric wear, abrasion, flexibility, washing, crushing, creasing, etc., in which the fabric is made into a garment, worn for a specific time, then assessed for performance.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Vectran Fiber Website

 

weave
The structural pattern in which yarns are interlaced to produce a fabric. The basic weaves are plain, twill and satin.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

weaving
The process of making a cloth by interlacing the threads of the weft and the warp on a loom.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

weft
The horizontal or crosswise element in a cloth. Synonomous with fill.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

welt

  • A finished edge on knit goods, especially hosiery. In women’s stockings, it is a wide band knitted from heavier yarn than the leg and folded on itself.
  • In other applications, it is a small cord covered with fabric and sewn along a seam or border to add strength. A seam made by folding the fabric double, generally over a cord, and sewing it.
  • Sometimes substituted for “pique.”

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

wet & dry crocking
Transfer of dye from the surface of a dyed or printed fabric onto another surface by rubbing.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

wild silk
Produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm and cannot be artificially cultivated. A variety of wild silks have been known and used in China, South Asia, and Europe since early times, but the scale of production was always far smaller than that of cultivated silks. They also differ in color and texture. The cocoons are gathered in the wild. They usually have been damaged by the emerging moth before the cocoons are gathered, so the silk thread that makes up the cocoon has been torn into shorter lengths.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

wool
Fiber or fleece from the coats of sheep, known especially for its warmth, elasticity, luster and affinity for color. Wool fibers vary in crimp, length and thickness, and wool yarns usually combine fibers from several breeds of sheep.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

 

woolens
The name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool. Woolen yarn is known for being light, stretchy and full of air. A good insulator and knitting yarn. Woolen yarn is in contrast to worsted yarn, which doesn’t contain air and doesn’t stretch as much.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

worsted
A general term applied to fabrics and yarns from combed wool and wool blends. Worsted yarn is smooth-surfaced and spun from evenly combed long staple. Worsted fabric is made from worsted yarns and is tightly woven with a smooth, hard surface. Examples are gabardine and serge.
Transfer of dye from the surface of a dyed or printed fabric onto another surface by rubbing.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)
A coalition of 160 international companies chartered to promote sustainable development through economic growth, ecological balance and social progress.

CATEGORY : Green

SOURCE :ACT Glossary

 

wrinkle recovery
The property of a fabric that enables it to recover from folding deformations.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

 

Wyzenbeek Test
A test used to measure a fabric’s resistance to wear and abrasion. A fabric sample, pulled taut and weighted, is abraded with a cylinder covered with a 50 x 70 wire screen or a 10 oz. cotton duck cloth.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

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yarn
A generic term for a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments or material in a form suitable for knitting, weaving or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric. Yarn occurs in the following forms: (1) a number of fibers twisted together (spun yarn); (2) a number of filaments laid together without twist (a zero-twist yarn); (3) a number of filaments laid together with a degree of twist; (4) a single filament with or without twist (a monofilament); or (5) a narrow strip of material, such as paper, plastic film or metal foil, with or without twist, intended for use in a textile construction.

CATEGORY : Yarn

SOURCE :extile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

yarn dyeing
The application of color to fiber after it is spun into yarn and before it is woven. Checks, stripes and plaids are typically woven in yarn-dyed cloths.

CATEGORY : Yarn

SOURCE :Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Re
SOURCEs Directory, 1990

yarn-dyed fabrics
The dyeing of yarn before the fabric is woven or knit. Yarn can be dyed in the form of skeins, muff, packages, cheeses, cakes, chain-wraps and beams.

CATEGORY : Yarn

SOURCE :Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

zibeline

  • The fur of small animal in the sable family.
  • A thick, lustrous, soft fabric of wool and other animal hair, having a silky nap. Usually strong colored and sometimes striping (removal of color) is noted in the cloth.

CATEGORY : Weave

SOURCE :All-About-Fabrics.com

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