FAQ’s

FAQ’s : Fiber / Yarn

Fiber / Yarn Related Terms begin with ‘A’

acetate
A manufactured fiber from cellulose acetate.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

acrylic
Generic term for a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 percent by weight of acrylonitrile units.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

Agion®
Agion® antimicrobial technology is based on naturally occurring elements (silver and copper ions). It is not a topical treatment; rather, it is extruded into a polyester fiber. The embedded Agion® technology allows for controlled antimicrobial release effective against damaging bacteria, mold, mildew, and fungi.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Agion®

alpaca
Long, fine hair fibers from the alpaca, an animal native to South America.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC)
Founded in 1921, the AATCC is the world’s leading not-for-profit professional association for the textile design, materials, processing and testing industries. AATCC has thousands of individual and corporate members in more than 60 countries. The Association is internationalacetately recognized for its standard methods of testing dyed and chemically treated fibers and fabrics to measure and evaluate such performance characteristics as colorfastness to light and washing, smoothness appearance, soil release, shrinkage, water resistance, and the many other conditions to which textiles may be subjected.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE :www.aatcc.org

angora
Fine, lightweight hair fiber from the Angora rabbit. Hair fibers from the angora goat are typically referred to as mohair.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

animal fibers
Fibers of animal origin such as wool, alpaca, camel hair and silk.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

Association for Contract Textiles (ACT)
The Association for Contract Textiles is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1985. ACT is a professional trade group consisting primarily of companies that design, develop, produce and promote textiles for commercial interiors united for support, strength, credibility and common interests.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Green, Weave

SOURCE : ACT

astrakhan
Fur from young lambs from Astrakhan, characterized by lustrous, closely curled wool. Often imitated by thick woven or knitted fabric with loops or curls on the surface.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


bamboo – natural (natural bamboo)
A fiber that is produced from original bamboo fibers and maintains all the original qualities inherent in bamboo. It is very similar to linen both in molecular structure and fiber characteristics.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Green

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

bamboo viscose
A fiber which has been reconstituted from the original bamboo fiber and therefore small amounts of original bamboo fiber remain. Viscose is the process of producing a rayon yarn and it was originally created to imitate silk.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

bast fiber
Bast fiber or skin fiber is plant fiber collected from the phloem (the “inner bark” or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonic, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. Most of the technically important bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, rattan, bamboo.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Wikipedia

blend
1. A yarn of two or more staple fibers spun together. 2. A fabric containing blended yarns in the warp and filling.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990


camel hair
Wool-like, extremely soft, lustrous animal fiber. Natural colors range from light tan to brownish-black.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

cashmere
A type of wool made from fibers obtained from the Cashmere goat characterized by luxuriously soft fibers.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

cellulose
An organic woody substance found in vegetation. It is base of rayon and acetate fibers and also the major constituent of paper.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

chamois
A soft, pliant leather made from the fresh splits of a sheepskin, and oil-tanned.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

chenille
A fuzzy yarn whose pile resembles a caterpillar.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

combed cotton
Cotton yarn that is cleaned with wire brushes to remove short fibers and impurities after carding.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

cotton
A soft vegetable fiber obtained from the seed pod of a cotton plant.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

cuprammonium
Classified as rayon, but differs from viscose because of its chemical composition.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

cut-pile fabric
A cloth with a three-dimensional surface produced by double weaving or by looping an additional warp or filling thread into the basic weave, and then cutting the loops (i.e. velvet, velour, plush).

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990


denier
A unit of weight indicating the size of a filament. The higher the denier number, the heavier the yarn.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

doupion
A silk thread made from two cocoons united by two worms spinning close together. The yarn is uneven, irregular and thicker than that from one cocoon. Used in slub fabrics.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

duck
A compact, durable plain-weave cotton fabric.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

dye affinity
The susceptibility of a fiber to various dyestuffs.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990


fiber
The most basic element in a cloth. Any tough, thread-like substance, natural or man-made, that can be spun, woven, felted, knitted or knotted into a fabric.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

fiber dyeing
Also called stock dyeing, fiber dyeing refers to the dyeing of fibers, or stock, before it is spun into yarn. It is done by putting loose, unspun fibers into large vats containing the dye bath, which is then heated to proper temperature.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Yarn

SOURCE : J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science (9th Edition) by Allen C. Cohen & Ingrid Johnson

filament
A fiber of indefinite length, either natural (silk) or man-made. Silk filament is the actual thread of a silkworm’s cocoon, while man-made filament is produced by forcing a solution through a spinneret.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

flax
A fiber from the Linum plant used to manufacture linen.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

fleece
Fiber sheared from animals (such as sheep) and twisted into yarn for weaving.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.


hair
Natural animal fiber other than sheep’s wool or silk.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

hemp
A coarse, durable fiber from the bast of a cannabis plant.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

hide
The raw skin of an animal.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

high energy dyed polyester
When a polyester fiber is heated at a high temperature it forces the molecule to open and encapsulate the dye stuff. This process enables the dye to have high color fastness and be resistant to many chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite (bleach).

CATEGORY : Fiber, Finish

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

huarizo
Bred for its fine fleece from a llama father and alpaca mother.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

jute
A coarse, brown fiber used for sacking and cordage.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


keratin
A tough, insoluble protein substance that is the chief structural constituent of wool and hair.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.


lambs wool
The first fleece taken from a sheep up to seven months old. Softer, superior quality than wools taken from older sheep that have been previously shorn.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

leather
An animal skin that has been transformed into useful material through tanning.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

lightfastness
Resistance to fading to the effects of sun or light.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

linen
Yarn, thread or fabric made of flax fibers. Noted especially for its strength, cool hand and luster.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

llama
The soft, strong underfleece of the llama, a South American animal similar to but smaller than a camel.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Lurex
Non-tarnishable aluminum yarns.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


man-made fiber
Any fiber that is manufactured whether natural or synthetic in origin.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

marl
Two yarns of different colors twisted around each other.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

mercerization
A treatment applied to cotton yarn and/or fabric to improve luster and increase the receptiveness of the fiber to dyes.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Finish

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

merino
Wool from the merino sheep used to make fine, soft fabrics resembling cashmere.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

mohair
Long, fine hair fiber from the angora goat.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

monofilament
A single-ply, untwisted yarn that may be either a man-made fiber extruded from a chemical solution or the single thread of the silkworm.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

muga
One of the best wild silks, grown in India; means light brown.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


noil
A short fiber combed from long fibers during the preparation of textile yarns.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) began on January 1, 1994. This agreement removes most barriers to trade and investment among the United States, Canada and Mexico.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE : USDA Foreign Agricultural Service

nylon
A generic name for manufactured fiber made of synthetic polyamides (a type of nitrogen-containing polymer). Strong and elastic, it can be formed into fibers, sheets or bristles, and is used to make fabrics, plastics and molded products.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.


olefin
A generic name for a manufactured fiber that is characterized by its resistance to moisture and chemicals. Since it resists dyeing, colored olefin fibers are produced by adding dye directly to the polymer prior to or during melt spinning.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : fibersource.com


polyamide
A polymer containing monomers of amides joined by peptide bonds. They can occur naturally (proteins, such as wool and silk), or can be made artificially (nylons, aramids, and sodium polyaspartates).

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

polyester
A synthetic polymer fiber manufactured from coal, water and petroleum. Strong, durable and wrinkle resistant, it is often blended with other fibers. Major disadvantages include inability to breathe and tendency to pill.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

polymer
A synthetic material from which fibers are formed.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

puckered cloths
A term adopted for pebbled, crimped, plisse or crackled nylon cloths.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


quilting
Two or more layers of cloth with padding between that is stitched by hand, machine, or chemical methods, usually in a pattern.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


radzimir
A fine, lustrous silk fabric with embedded cross-ribs. Softer, less crisp and duller than taffeta.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

ratine
A loosely woven fabric with a rough nubby texture. Also called eponge, frisé and sponge cloth.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

raw silk
The fabric or yarn made from untreated silk as reeled from a cocoon

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

rayon
A man-made fiber produced by forcing a cellulose solution through fine spinnerets and solidifying the resulting filaments. Also referred to as cuprammonium and viscose.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

retting
Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fiber from the stem. It is used in the production of fiber from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Wikipedia


sheer
Any very thin almost transparent fabric.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

shrinkage
Treatments to remove most of a fabric’s tendency to shrink. More common techniques include sponging, steaming, machine shrinking, cold-water shrinking and resin applications.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

silk
A natural protein fiber. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibers’ triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

skin fiber
Skin fiber or bast fiber is plant fiber collected from the phloem (the “inner bark” or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonic, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. Most of the technically important bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, rattan, bamboo.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Wikipedia

slippage
Sliding or slipping of warp threads along filling threads, or vice versa, in a fabric of smooth yarns or loose weave.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

slub
Soft, thick, uneven nub in a yarn that gives decorative textured effect to a weave.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

solution dyeing
The coloring of a synthetic solution before it is extruded into filament form. This method achieves a high degree of colorfastness; also called dope dyeing.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

space dyeing
The process of dyeing a single yarn or filament with two or more colors at regular or irregular intervals. Filament yarns are usually printed while spun yarns are dipped in different dye baths to obtain various hues.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

spandex
A synthetic fiber or fabric made from a polymer containing polyurethane, used in the manufacture of elastic clothing.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

stabilizing
Any process which prevents fabrics from shrinking or stretching.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
Standard Industrial Classification codes indicate the company’s type of business. These codes are also used in the Division of Corporation Finance as a basis for assigning review responsibility for the company’s filings.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE : US Securities and Exchange Commission

staple The length of the fiber. Usually short lengths rather than one continuous strand or filament.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

stock dyeing
Also called fiber dyeing, stock dyeing refers to the dyeing of fibers, or stock, before it is spun into yarn. It is done by putting loose, unspun fibers into large vats containing the dye bath, which is then heated to proper temperature.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Yarn

SOURCE : J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science (9th Edition) by Allen C. Cohen & Ingrid Johnson

suede
A general term for leather with a wearing surface finished to a fine velvet-like nap.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

swatch
A small piece of cloth used as a sample of a fabric.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

synthetic fiber
A textile fiber made from a petrochemical rather than natural base. All synthetic fibers are man-made, but not all man-made fibers are synthetic.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990


Shrre
Any very thin almost transparent /fabric.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

shrinkage
Treatments to remove most of a fabric’s tendency to shrink. More common techniques include sponging, steaming, machine shrinking, cold-water shrinking and resin applications.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

silk
A natural protein fiber. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibers’ triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

skin fiber
Skin fiber or bast fiber is plant fiber collected from the phloem (the “inner bark” or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonic, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. Most of the technically important bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, rattan, bamboo.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Wikipedia

slippage
Sliding or slipping of warp threads along filling threads, or vice versa, in a fabric of smooth yarns or loose weave.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

slub
Soft, thick, uneven nub in a yarn that gives decorative textured effect to a weave.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

solution dyeing
The coloring of a synthetic solution before it is extruded into filament form. This method achieves a high degree of colorfastness; also called dope dyeing.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

space dyeing
The process of dyeing a single yarn or filament with two or more colors at regular or irregular intervals. Filament yarns are usually printed while spun yarns are dipped in different dye baths to obtain various hues.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

spandex
A synthetic fiber or fabric made from a polymer containing polyurethane, used in the manufacture of elastic clothing.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

stabilizing
Any process which prevents fabrics from shrinking or stretching.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
Standard Industrial Classification codes indicate the company’s type of business. These codes are also used in the Division of Corporation Finance as a basis for assigning review responsibility for the company’s filings.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave

SOURCE : US Securities and Exchange Commission

staple
The length of the fiber. Usually short lengths rather than one continuous strand or filament.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

stock dyeing
Also called fiber dyeing, stock dyeing refers to the dyeing of fibers, or stock, before it is spun into yarn. It is done by putting loose, unspun fibers into large vats containing the dye bath, which is then heated to proper temperature.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Yarn

SOURCE : J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science (9th Edition) by Allen C. Cohen & Ingrid Johnson

suede
A general term for leather with a wearing surface finished to a fine velvet-like nap.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

swatch
A small piece of cloth used as a sample of a fabric.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

synthetic fiber
A textile fiber made from a petrochemical rather than natural base. All synthetic fibers are man-made, but not all man-made fibers are synthetic.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990


terry cloth
A pile fabric (usually cotton) with uncut loops on both sides; extremely water absorbent and used to make bath towels and bath robes.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

textile
Any fiber or yarn, natural or man-made, or any fabric made from these materials.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

textured
A generic term for a variety of bulked, loopy or crimped yarns that have greater volume and surface interest.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)
A type of polyurethane with notable strength and elasticity that is also less flammable compared to other polyurethane fabrics.

CATEGORY : Fiber, Green

SOURCE : Brentano, Inc.

toile
A French term for a sheer fabric such as linen or cotton.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Trevira CS
A type a polyester yarn that is inherently flame retardant.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Trevira CS Website

tulle
A fine, often starched net of silk, rayon or nylon, used especially for veils, tutus or gowns.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

tussah
General term for uncultivated or wild silk, specifically referencing the silk filaments from the tussah worms of India or China. Filaments are coarser, crisper, stronger, more irregular and brownish in color compared to cultivated silk.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

twill
A weave with diagonal ribs. Diagonals may be set at sharp blunt angles, embedded or raised. Important types of twills are flannels, serges, gabardines and surahs.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


velveteen
Cotton or rayon pile fabric with short, close filling loops cut by sharp knives to create the velvety pile. Unlike velvet that is woven face to face, velveteen is woven singly.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

vicuna
A llama-like animal of the Andes. Expensive and scarce, it is considered the finest classified wool. Sale of this fiber is regulated by the Peruvian government. Naturally a reddish brown color, silky luster, with a soft, lush hand.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

vinyl
Any of various typically tough, flexible, shiny plastics, often used for coverings and clothing.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

virgin wool
Wool that has never been used or reclaimed from any spun, woven, knitted, felted, manufactured or used product.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper


welt
1. A finished edge on knit goods, especially hosiery. In women’s stockings, it is a wide band knitted from heavier yarn than the leg and folded on itself. 2. In other applications, it is a small cord covered with fabric and sewn along a seam or border to add strength. A seam made by folding the fabric double, generally over a cord, and sewing it. 3. Sometimes substituted for “pique.”

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

wild silk
Produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm and cannot be artificially cultivated. A variety of wild silks have been known and used in China, South Asia, and Europe since early times, but the scale of production was always far smaller than that of cultivated silks. They also differ in color and texture. The cocoons are gathered in the wild. They usually have been damaged by the emerging moth before the cocoons are gathered, so the silk thread that makes up the cocoon has been torn into shorter lengths.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

wool
Fiber or fleece from the coats of sheep, known especially for its warmth, elasticity, luster and affinity for color. Wool fibers vary in crimp, length and thickness, and wool yarns usually combine fibers from several breeds of sheep.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

woolens
The name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool. Woolen yarn is known for being light, stretchy and full of air. A good insulator and knitting yarn. Woolen yarn is in contrast to worsted yarn, which doesn’t contain air and doesn’t stretch as much.

CATEGORY : Fiber

SOURCE : Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper
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