FABRICS FAQ : textile glossary


Textile Terms begin with 'S'

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z



sateen

A cotton cloth made in a satin weave, often treated with high luster and crease-resistant finishes.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

satin finish

A glossy finish given to many fabrics.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

satin weave

Basic weave, characterized by floats running in the warp direction in such a manner that gives the fabric a gloss, luster or shine.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

Schiffi

A machine for embroidering and making heavy venise lace.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Scientific Certification Systems (SCS)

SCS, an international organization, provides independent certification and verfication of environmental, sustainable, stewardship, food quality, food safety and food purity claims.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     SCS

Scotchgard™

A registered brand name for a stain-repellent and rain-repellent finish.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Scottish plaid

A coarse, very durable twilled woolen fabric made of Scottish native wool.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

screen prints

Similar to stencil work, except that a screen is used. Certain areas of the screen are treated to take dye, others to resist dye. A paste is forced through the screen onto the fabric by a squeegee to form the pattern.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

seam slippage

The movement of yarns in a fabric that occurs when it is pulled apart at a seam.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

seconds

Imperfect fabrics with weave, finish or dyeing flaws.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

seersucker

A thin, all-cotton fabric, commonly striped.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

selvage

Heavy reinforced outside woven edges of cloth.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

sensitization

The ability of a substance to induce an immunologically mediated (allergic) response.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

sequin

A small, sparkly plastic disc used for decoration.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

serge

A smooth-finished fabric in a balanced twill weave that is the same on both the face and back.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

serpentine crepe

A plain weave with lengthwise crinkled effect. Also in a ribbed form with heavy filling in the ribs.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

shading

The apparent graduations of color in cut-pile fabrics that are caused by variations in light reflection. This is not a defect, but a desirable characteristic of these fabrics.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

shantung

A plain silk weave originally made from wild silk in Shantung China on hand looms, characterized by a rough, nubbed surface caused by the slubs in the yarn.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

shearing

A mechanical process that cuts projecting fibers from the fabric face. It is especially used for wool and other fabrics with a tendency to pill.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

sheer

Any very thin almost transparent fabric.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Shetland

Applies only to wool from a sheep raised in the Shetland Isle of Scotland. Fabrics made from this fiber are usually lightweight and warm, with a raised finish and soft hand.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

shibori

The Japanese term for a myriad of resist dyeing techniques, including Western tie-dye
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Brentano, Inc.

shrinkage

Treatments to remove most of a fabric's tendency to shrink. More common techniques include sponging, steaming, machine shrinking, cold-water shrinking and resin applications.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

shuttle

The device on a loom that carries the filling yarn through the shed to interlace it with the warp.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)

Instances in which building occupants experience acute health and discomfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified. The complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone, or may be widespread throughout the building. In contrast, the term building related illness (BRI) is used when symptoms of diagnosable illness are identified and can be attributed directly to airborne building contaminants.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

silicone finish

A liquid fluorocarbon treatment that is either sprayed or padded on to the fabric to make it resistant to water and oil-borne stains. See Scotchgard™ and Teflon™.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

silk

A natural protein fiber. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibers' triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

sisal

A hard fiber obtained from the sword like leave of the sisal plant.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

sizing

1. A starch applied to warp threads to strengthen them for the strains of the weaving process. It is removed by scouring during finishing.
2. A starch applied to cotton or linen cloth that is removed when the fabric is washed.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

skein-dyed yarns

Spun or filament yarns of any natural or man-made fiber dyed in the form of hanks or skeins.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

skin fiber

Skin fiber or bast fiber is plant fiber collected from the phloem (the "inner bark" or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonic, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. Most of the technically important bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, rattan, bamboo.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Wikipedia

skin penetration potential

A measure of the ability of a compound to assist in the absorption of chemicals into the skin.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

slippage

Sliding or slipping of warp threads along filling threads, or vice versa, in a fabric of smooth yarns or loose weave.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

slub

Soft, thick, uneven nub in a yarn that gives decorative textured effect to a weave.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

solid waste

Non-liquid, non-soluble materials from sources ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that may contain complex and hazardous substances. Solid wastes also include sewage sludge, agricultural refuse, demolition wastes and mining residues. Technically, solid waste also refers to liquids and gases in containers.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

solution dyeing

The coloring of a synthetic solution before it is extruded into filament form. This method achieves a high degree of colorfastness; also called dope dyeing.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

source reduction

Any practice: (a) reducing the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment or disposal; and (b) reducing the hazards to the public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants or contaminants.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

space dyeing

The process of dyeing a single yarn or filament with two or more colors at regular or irregular intervals. Filament yarns are usually printed while spun yarns are dipped in different dye baths to obtain various hues.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

spandex

A synthetic fiber or fabric made from a polymer containing polyurethane, used in the manufacture of elastic clothing.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

spinning

The process of twisting staple fibers into single-ply yarn, or of drawing liquid through a spinneret to produce synthetic monofilaments.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

spun-silk

Yarn made of silk broken by the emergence of mature silk moths from cocoons.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

stabilizing

Any process which prevents fabrics from shrinking or stretching.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

Standard Industrial Classification codes indicate the company's type of business. These codes are also used in the Division of Corporation Finance as a basis for assigning review responsibility for the company's filings.
CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave
SOURCE :     US Securities and Exchange Commission

staple

The length of the fiber. Usually short lengths rather than one continuous strand or filament.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

stock dyeing

Also called fiber dyeing, stock dyeing refers to the dyeing of fibers, or stock, before it is spun into yarn. It is done by putting loose, unspun fibers into large vats containing the dye bath, which is then heated to proper temperature.
CATEGORY : Fiber, Yarn
SOURCE :     J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science (9th Edition) by Allen C. Cohen & Ingrid Johnson

strié

Irregular streaks in a fabric of practically the same color as the background, from the French "stripe" or "streak".
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

stripe

A long, straight region of a single color.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

suede

A general term for leather with a wearing surface finished to a fine velvet-like nap.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

suedecloth

A woven fabric with a flat, napped surface finished to resemble suede.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

superfund

The U.S. government's federal program to clean up the nation's uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The EPA administers the Superfund program in cooperation with individual states and tribal governments. The federal office that oversees management of the program is the EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR).
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)

Federal statute (of 1986) that increased the size of the Superfund trust fund for cleanup activities and increased the authority of the EPA in enforcement and cleanup activities. Title III of SARA is known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (see EPCRA).
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

surah

A soft twilled fabric of silk or of a blend of silk and rayon.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

sustainability

The characteristic of a product, material or process to be sustainable.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

sustainable

Of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

sustainable development

That which meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (The United Nations Brundtland Commission, 1987).
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

sustainable manufacturing

Manufacturing processes that have no negative impact on natural ecosystems or resources.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

sustainable practice

A practice (such as manufacturing) that maintains a given condition without destroying or depleting natural resources.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

sustainable product

A product that has no negative impact on natural ecosystems or resources.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

swatch

A small piece of cloth used as a sample of a fabric.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

synthetic fiber

A textile fiber made from a petrochemical rather than natural base. All synthetic fibers are man-made, but not all man-made fibers are synthetic.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990