FABRICS FAQ : textile glossary


Textile Terms begin with 'P'

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z



package dyeing

The dyeing of yarns wound on spools.
CATEGORY : Yarn
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

paillette

From the French for sequin. Generally larger than sequins.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

paisley

A paisley or paisley pattern is a droplet-shaped vegetal motif of Persian origin similar to half of the Yin yang symbol, or the leaf of the Indian bodhi tree or the mango tree; or to a leech. The western name derives from the town of Paisley, in central Scotland.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

panama

Plain woven hopsacking of coarse-yarn basket weave, plain or in two colors, producing a texture similar to that of panama hats.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

panne

A finish usually applied to either satin or velvet in order to give the surface a high luster.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

peau de soie

A medium to heavy drapeable fabric with a satin weave and delustered finish; a traditional fabric for wedding dresses.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     denverfabrics.com

pebble

An irregular or rough surface with a pebbly look, as in a pebble crepe.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

persistence

This is a measure of a substance's ability to remain as a discrete chemical entity in the environment for a prolonged period of time. A common measuring tool for persistence is "half-life" (t1/2), which is the amount of time required for half of the substance to break down. If halflife is greater than 30 days in the air, or if half-life is greater than 50 days in soil, water, or any other media, the substance is considered to be persistent.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

persistent bioaccumulative toxin (PBT)

Chemicals that are toxic, persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in food chains and therefore pose risks to human health and ecosystems.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

photochemical oxidant potential

The release of harmful substances that react to form ground-level ozone, resulting in vegetation damage and human health problems.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

photographic prints

Made from photoengraved rollers that transfer photographs to cloth. Several processes, all adapted from color printing on paper.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

pick

One thread of warp or filling.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

piece dyeing

A common method of dyeing that allows flexibility to meet color demands, i.e. a material dyed in the piece after weaving.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Pigment Dye

Pigments are colored, black, white or fluorescent particulate organic or inorganic solids which usually are insoluble in, and essentially physically and chemically unaffected by, the vehicle or substrate in which they are incorporated. They alter appearance by selective absorption and/or by scattering of light. Pigments are usually dispersed in vehicles or substrates for application, as for instance in the manufacture or inks, paints, plastics or other polymeric materials. Pigments retain a crystal or particulate structure throughout the coloration process.
CATEGORY : Dye
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

pigment finish

Color applied to leather in solid particles (pigments) that cover the surface.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

pile fabric

Fabric with cut or uncut loops which stand up densely on the surface. Not to be confused with napped fabrics, which have brushed surfaces. Velvets, plushes, velveteens and corduroy are cut pile fabrics. Epingles are uncut pile fabrics.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

pile weave

A three-dimensional surface construction in which cut or uncut loops protrude from the ground cloth. The loops may be made of warp or filling yarns, and be produced by a double wave or with wires. The wire method uses round-tipped wires to raise loops for uncut pile, and sharp-edged cut wires for cut pile.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

pilling

The formation of little fuzzy balls on a fabric surface caused by the rubbing off of a fiber's loose ends that are too long or strong to break away.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

pincheck

A very tiny check.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

pique

Refers to a weaving style, as in "pique cotton", which is characterized by raised parallel cords or fine ribbing (for example, in the collar of a polo shirt or tennis shirt). Twilled cotton (see Twill) or corded cotton are close relatives.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

plaid

A pattern of colored stripes or bars crossing each other at right angles.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

plain weave

The most simple method of interlacing warp and weft threads to make a cloth. Each filling thread passes alternately under and over the warp yarns to produce a balanced construction. Also known as 'tabby,' this is a strong weave, inexpensive to produce, and the best ground for printing. However, if the thread count is low, the fabric may be too weak for upholstery.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

plastic

Any of various organic compounds produced by polymerization, capable of being molded, extruded, cast into various shapes and films or drawn into filaments used as textile fibers.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

plied yarn

A yarn formed by twisting together two or more single strands.
CATEGORY : Yarn
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

plisse

Usually a print cloth treated with chemicals that cause part of the cloth to shrink, creating a permanently crinkled surface.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

plush

Warp pile fabric originally made from silk or wool that is distinct from velvet because of its longer and less dense pile. Modern plushes can be made of polyester.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

ply

An individual strand of yarn.
CATEGORY : Yarn
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

point source pollution

Pollution that originates from specific, known sources such as municipal and industrial facilities, bypasses and overflows from municipal sewage systems, non-permitted and illegal dischargers, and water that is generated through oil and gas operations.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

pollution prevention

Source reduction as defined in the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13102), and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through: (a) increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water or other resources; or (b) protection of natural resources by conservation.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

polyamide

A polymer containing monomers of amides joined by peptide bonds. They can occur naturally (proteins, such as wool and silk), or can be made artificially (nylons, aramids, and sodium polyaspartates).
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

polyester

A synthetic polymer fiber manufactured from coal, water and petroleum. Strong, durable and wrinkle resistant, it is often blended with other fibers. Major disadvantages include inability to breathe and tendency to pill.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

A thermoplastic material that is clear, tough and has good gas and moisture barrier properties. Used in soft drink bottles and other blow molded containers, although sheet applications are increasing. Cleaned, recycled PET flakes and pellets are used in some spinning fiber for carpet yarns, fiberfill and geo-textiles. Other applications include strapping, molding compounds and both food and non-food containers.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

polymer

A synthetic material from which fibers are formed.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

polypropylene

The basic fiber forming substance for olefin.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Synthetic thermoplastic polymer made from vinyl chloride. In addition to its stable physical properties, PVC has excellent transparency, chemical resistance, long-term stability, good weatherability, flow characteristics and stable electrical properties. However, its stability makes it nearly environmentally indestructible. PVC also releases hydrochloric acid and other toxic compounds when produced, used or burned.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

pongee

A plain woven, light weight or medium-weight fabric made from wild silk. Almost always pale or dark tan, but now sometimes printed, bleached and dyed in colors.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

poodle cloth

Loopy boucle or knotted yarn cloth that looks like the coat of a poodle.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

post-consumer

An adjective used to describe all or part of a consumer product that has reached the end of its useful life in that form.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

post-consumer material

A material or finished product that has served its intended use and has been discarded for disposal or recovery, having completed its life as a consumer item.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

post-consumer recycling

The recycling of materials generated from residential and consumer waste for use in new or similar purposes, such as converting wastepaper from offices into corrugated boxes or soda bottles into polyester fiber.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

post-industrial material

Recovered industrial and manufacturing materials that are diverted from municipal solid waste for the purpose of collection, recycling and disposition. Post-industrial materials are part of the broader category of recovered materials and include print overruns, over issue publications and obsolete inventories.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

poult de soie

A silk fabric in plain weave with heavy filling strands forming cross ribs, sometimes called a Faille Taffeta.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

printing

The process of producing designs of one or more colors on a fabric using different methods, such as roller, block, screen, and several color techniques, such as direct, discharge, and resist.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

product of consumption

A product designed for safe and complete return to the environment, which becomes nutrients for living systems. The product of consumption design strategy allows products to offer effectiveness without the liability of materials that must be recycled or "managed" after use.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

Product of Service

A product that is used by the customer, formally or in effect, but owned by the manufacturer. The manufacturer maintains ownership of valuable material assets for continual reuse while the customer receives the service of the product without assuming its material liability. Products that can utilize valuable but potentially hazardous materials can be optimized as Products of Service.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

product stewardship

The responsible and ethical management of the health, safety and environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

puckered cloths

A term adopted for pebbled, crimped, plisse or crackled nylon cloths.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper