FABRICS FAQ : textile glossary


Textile Terms begin with 'C'

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z



calendering

An ironing process that adds sheen to a fabric.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

California Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES)

An information system developed by the California Resources Agency to facilitate access to a variety of electronic data describing California's diverse environments.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

camel hair

Wool-like, extremely soft, lustrous animal fiber. Natural colors range from light tan to brownish-black.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

canvas

Usually cotton or linen woven in a heavy firm weave.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

carcinogen- probable

A known animal carcinogen, but carcinogenicity in humans has not been definitely proven (MAK 2 or TLV A2 or IARC Group 2A).
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

carcinogen-known

A causal relationship has been established between exposure to the agent and human cancer (MAK 1 or TLV A1 or IARC Group 1).
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

carcinogen-possible

A known animal carcinogen, but evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is non-existent, or there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and insufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals (MAK 3 or TLV A3 or IARC Group 2B)
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

carding

A process used for all natural fibers, in which they are separated and brought into general alignment before spinning. Yarns spun from carded wool are called woolen yarns.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

cashmere

A type of wool made from fibers obtained from the Cashmere goat characterized by luxuriously soft fibers.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

cellulose

An organic woody substance found in vegetation. It is base of rayon and acetate fibers and also the major constituent of paper.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

challis

A fine, light weight, plain-weave fabric; one of the softest fabrics made.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

chambray

A popular cotton fabric in plain weave that combines colored warp and white filling yarns.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

chamois

A soft, pliant leather made from the fresh splits of a sheepskin, and oil-tanned.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

check

A small pattern of squares.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Chemical Abstract Service number (CAS number)

A number uniquely identifying each pure chemical compound.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

When a body of wastewater contains too much biological material, the bacteria and other microorganisms in it cannot successfully decompose all the organic matter for food, growth and energy. This breaking down of the biological material requires oxygen; therefore, by measuring the amount of oxygen that is depleted from the sample as a result of such bacterial action, the balance within the aquatic environment can be measured. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a test that adds a strong chemical oxidizing agent to the wastewater sample in order to estimate the result of bacterial action. Although it is completely artificial, it is considered to yield a result that may be used as the basis on which to calculate a reasonably accurate and reproducible estimate of the oxygen-demanding properties of a wastewater. The COD's advantages (compared to the BOD test) are that it takes under three hours for completion and is not subject to the interference from toxic materials that can affect the results of the BOD. Both of these are standard tests for estimating the health of an aquatic environment.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

chenille

A fuzzy yarn whose pile resembles a caterpillar.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

chevron

The general shape of a V character similar to zigzag stripes.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

chiffon

A lightweight, balanced plain-woven sheer fabric woven with twist yarns. The twist in the crepe yarns puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a slightly rough feel. Made of silk, wool, or man-made fibers; From the French word for cloth.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

chintz

1. A highly lustrous printed cotton fabric with often with a glazed finish.
2. A painted or stained calico from India.
CATEGORY : Finish, Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)

A compound consisting of chlorine, fluorine and carbon. CFCs are very stable in the troposphere. CFCs are commonly used as refrigerants, solvents and foam-blowing agents; uses of CFCs in aerosols are prohibited due to ozone depleting potential.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

chromium

Chromium is a steely-gray chemical element that has a high melting point and is often used in dyes, paints, and tanning of leather. It has an acute toxicity that can lead to organ failure in humans and it is also a carcinogen.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     Wikipedia

ciré

A highly glazed finish produced on the surface of the fabric, from the French verb meaning to wax.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

cisele

A velvet fabric on which the pattern is formed by contrast between cut and uncut pile loops.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Clean Air Act (CAA)

The federal statute that regulates air emissions from area, stationary and mobile sources. This law authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public health and the environment.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

Clean Water Act

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, as amended in 1977, became commonly known as the Clean Water Act. The act established the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

Clearance Time (CT )

The CT indicates the time needed to eliminate or biodegrade a substance to a certain percentage in an organism. For example, the CT50 indicates the time needed to eliminate 50% of a certain substance, analogous to the half-life time measure t1/2.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

climatic relevance

A measure of the climate influencing characteristics of a substance. All compounds that contribute to global warming are listed here. Examples include carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs and sulfur hexafluoride.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

clipped fabrics

Clipping or shearing of floating threads between the design during finishing.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

cloqué

A cotton, silk or rayon fabric with a raised woven pattern and a puckered or quilted look.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

closed loop

A type of manufacturing process that utilizes a cyclical material flow in order to minimize waste.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

colorfastness to light

A material's degree of resistance to the fading effect of light.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

combed cotton

Cotton yarn that is cleaned with wire brushes to remove short fibers and impurities after carding.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

compostable

Possessing the ability to break down into, or otherwise become part of, usable compost (e.g., soil-conditioning material, mulch) in a safe and timely manner.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     www.ftc.govos/1998/9804/63fr24240.pdf

Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)

A 1980 federal statute that created the Superfund program and established a trust fund for the cleanup of abandoned and uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

content of halogenated organic

The column in the periodic chart of the elements that begins with Fluorine contains the halogens. These elements, when combined with organic compounds, form halogenated organic compounds. Most of these compounds are toxic, carcinogenic, persistent, ozone
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

converter

An individual or company that buys grey goods, applies any numbers of finishes (dyeing, printing, mercerizing etc.) and sells the finished fabric to a wholesaler or retailer.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

corduroy

A durable cut-pile fabric, usually made of cotton with vertical ribs. Back may be plain or twill weave.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

cotton

A soft vegetable fiber obtained from the seed pod of a cotton plant.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)

The Council on Environmental Quality coordinates federal environmental efforts. CEQ reports annually to the President on the state of the environment; oversees federal agency implementation of the environmental impact assessment process; and acts as a referee when agencies disagree over the adequacy of such assessments.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     The White House Website

count

1. The number size of a yarn. The higher the count, the finer the yarn.
2. The number of ends and picks per inch of weave. The higher the count, the finer the weave.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

Cradle to Cradle (C2C)

A term used in life-cycle analysis to describe a material or product that is recycled into a new product at the end of its defined life.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

Cradle to Cradle Design

Cradle-to-Cradle Design is MBDC's design paradigm, based on principles and an understanding of the pursuit of value, as well as MBDC's processes for product and material research and development, and for educating and training. At a fundamental level, the new paradigm proposes that human design can learn from nature to be effective, safe, enriching and delightful. Cradle-to-Cradle Design models human industry on nature's processes, in which materials are viewed as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms. Industry must protect and enrich ecosystems — nature's biological metabolism — while also maintaining safe, productive technical metabolism for the high-quality use and circulation of mineral, synthetic and other materials.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

Cradle to Cradle Protocol

A scientifically based, peer reviewed process used to assess and optimize materials used in products and production processes in order to maximize health, safety, effectiveness and high quality reutilization over many product life-cycles.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

crepe

A light, soft, thin fabric of silk, cotton, wool or another fiber with a crinkled surface. The crinkled surface is produced by hard twist yarns, chemical treatment, weave, or embossing.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

cretonne

A heavy, unglazed cotton, linen or rayon fabric, colorfully printed and used for draperies. Similar to unglazed chintz.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

crinoline

Open, stiff weave with a hard-twist cotton warp or horse hair filling.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

criteria air pollutants

The six substances (ozone, lead, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) used as indicators of air quality; the EPA has established a maximum concentration for each above which human health may be adversely affected.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

crocking

The rubbing off of color due to improper or insufficient dye penetration or fixation. Crocking can occur under wet or dry conditions.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

Crypton Home

Crypton Home – Also known as INCASE® was created specifically for upholstery fabrics, offering a bundled solution of “repel and release” stain technology and microbial resistance for the life of the fabric and is to be used when a barrier is not required.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Crypton, INC. Website

cuprammonium

Classified as rayon, but differs from viscose because of its chemical composition.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

cut-pile fabric

A cloth with a three-dimensional surface produced by double weaving or by looping an additional warp or filling thread into the basic weave, and then cutting the loops (i.e. velvet, velour, plush).
CATEGORY : Fiber, Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990