FABRICS FAQ : textile glossary


Textile Terms begin with 'B'

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z



backing

1. A general term for any system of yarn which interlaces on the back of a textile material.
2. A knit or woven fabric or plastic foam bonded to a face fabric.
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Vectran Fiber Website

bamboo - natural (natural bamboo)

A fiber that is produced from original bamboo fibers and maintains all the original qualities inherent in bamboo. It is very similar to linen both in molecular structure and fiber characteristics.
CATEGORY : Fiber, Green
SOURCE :     Brentano, Inc.

bamboo viscose

A fiber which has been reconstituted from the original bamboo fiber and therefore small amounts of original bamboo fiber remain. Viscose is the process of producing a rayon yarn and it was originally created to imitate silk.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Brentano, Inc.

bar (or barré)

A line of off-shade color running selvage to selvage in a fabric, caused by a change in loom tension or irregular dyeing.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

barathea

A closely woven dobby-weave fabric with a characteristic pebbly surface. Generally made from silk or rayon, and often combined with cotton or worsted. Fabric is usually used for dresses, neckties and lightweight suits.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

bark crepe

A crepe fabric textured to simulate the appearance of tree bark.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     answers.com

basket weave

A plain weave with two or more warp and filling threads interlaced to resemble a plaited basket.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

bast fiber

Bast fiber or skin fiber is plant fiber collected from the phloem (the "inner bark" or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonic, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. Most of the technically important bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, rattan, bamboo.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Wikipedia

batik

An Indonesian word that refers to a generic wax-resistant dyeing technique used on textiles.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

batiste

A fabric named for Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. Lightweight, sheer, delicate fabric in a plain weave with a delicate hand and a graceful drape.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Silk Road, inc.

beaker dyeing

The dyeing of small fabric samples during color development.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

beam

The cylinder at both the front and back of a loom, onto which the warp is wound.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

bengaline

A fabric having a crosswise ribbed effect made of silk, wool or synthetic fibers.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

bias

An invisible line at 45 degrees diagonal to the grain of a fabric.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

bioaccumulation

The process by which substances are stored and accumulated in the tissue or organs of humans or animals.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

biobased product

A commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable domestic agricultural (plant, animal and marine) or forestry materials.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

When a body of wastewater contains too much biological material, the bacteria and other microorganisms in it cannot successfully decompose all the organic matter for food, growth and energy. This breaking down of the biological material requires oxygen; therefore, by measuring the amount of oxygen that is depleted from the sample as a result of such bacterial action, the balance within the aquatic environment can be measured. The BOD is a standard test, which takes five days to run, and is performed by introducing a population of bacteria and microorganisms to attempt to duplicate what would happen in a natural stream. The most commonly used method to estimate the total quantity of biodegradable organic material in wastewater. Compare to Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

bioconcentration factor (BCF)

A measure of the tendency for a chemical to accumulate. The ratio of the concentration of a substance in a living organism (mg/kg) to the concentration of that substance in the surrounding environment (mg/l for aquatic systems).
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

biodegradable

Exhibiting the capability of being broken down (or decomposed or metabolized) by microorganisms and reduced to organic or inorganic molecules which can be further utilized by living systems.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

biodegradation

The process by which a substance or material is broken down (or decomposed) by microorganisms and reduced to organic or inorganic molecules that can be further utilized by living systems. Biodegradation can be aerobic, if oxygen is present, or anaerobic, if no oxygen is present.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

biological metabolism

The natural processes of ecosystems are a biological metabolism, making safe and healthy use of materials in cycles of abundance
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

biological nutrient

A biodegradable material posing no immediate or eventual hazard to living systems that can be used for human purposes and can safely return to the environment to feed environmental processes.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     MBDC

bird's eye

A dobby-loom weave characterized by a small diamond shaped spots resembling bird's eyes.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Textile Glossary by Marvin Klapper

blanket

A textile sample showing a series of patterns or colors all on the same warp.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

bleach cleanable

The fabric can be cleaned and sanitized with a ratio of household bleach to water
CATEGORY : Finish
SOURCE :     Brentano, Inc.

blend

1. A yarn of two or more staple fibers spun together.
2. A fabric containing blended yarns in the warp and filling.
CATEGORY : Fiber
SOURCE :     Midwest Decorative Fabrics Association Textile Resources Directory, 1990

bombazine

A fine English twilled fabric of silk and worsted or cotton.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :      Brentano, Inc.

bouclé

A fabric woven with boucle yarns, which have a looped appearance on the surface.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

breaking strength

The measurement of stress exerted to pull a fabric apart under tension.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary

brocade

A rich jacquard fabric with allover interwoven design of raised figures or flowers. The name is derived from the French word meaning "to ornament." The brocade pattern is emphasized with contrasting surfaces or colors and often has gold or silver threads running through it.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

burlap

A coarse, heavy plain-weave fabric made of jute.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     Introductory Textile Science (5th edition) by Marjory L. Joseph

burn-out

A technique used to develop raised designs on fabric surface. Primarily done in fabrics with at least two different fiber content, i.e. cotton-polyester, silk-rayon, etc. One fiber component is being dissolved through chemical reactions while the other content remains intact, resulting in the illusion of a raised design.
CATEGORY : Weave
SOURCE :     answers.com

by-product

Anything produced in an industrial or biological process in addition to the principal product; a secondary and sometimes unexpected or unintended result.
CATEGORY : Green
SOURCE :     ACT Glossary