FABRICS FAQ : textile testing methods


Physical Properties  [ ACT testing standards ]

Pilling is the formation of fuzzy balls of fiber on the surface of a fabric that remain attached to the fabric.
Breaking strength is the measurement of stress exerted to pull a fabric apart under tension.
Seam Slippage is the movement of yarns in a fabric that occurs when it is pulled apart at a seam.

Upholstery

Brush pill ASTM D3511-02
: Class 3 minimum
Breaking strength ASTM D5034-95 (2001) (Grab Test)
: 50 lbs. minimum in warp and weft
Seam slippage ASTM D4034
: 25 lbs. minimum in warp and weft

Wrapped Panels and Upholstered Walls

Breaking strength ASTM D5034-95 (2001) (Grab Test)
: 35 lbs. minimum in warp and weft

Drapery

Seam slippage ASTM D3597-02-D434-95
: 25 lbs. minimum in warp and weft for fabrics over 6 oz./sq. yard



What Tests are used to Measure Physical Properties?

Tests used to measure physical properties include Brush pill ASTM D3511-02, Breaking strength ASTM D5034-95 (2001) (Grab Test), Seam slippage ASTM D4034 and Seam slippage ASTM D3597-02-D434-95.

"Physical property tests include: Brush Pill, Breaking Strength and Seam Slippage. Pilling is the formation of fuzzy balls of fiber on the surface of a fabric that remain attached to the fabric. Breaking strength is the measurement of stress exerted to pull a fabric apart under tension. Seam Slippage is the movement of yarns in a fabric that occurs when it is pulled apart at a seam."

"The ASTM D3511-02 is a test method of the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). This test utilizes nylon bristles to rub the surface of the test fabric for a specific amount of time. The number of pill balls are counted and given a 1 - 5 rating."

Class 5 = no pilling
Class 1 = severe pilling


"The ASTM D5034-95 (2001) (Grab Test) is a test method of the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). To evaluate, the fabric being tested is put into a machine that grips the fabric with two clamps. One clamp is stationary and the other moves away applying tension until the fabric breaks or ruptures. This test is performed in both the warp and weft directions. The number of pounds required to cause a fabric to break or rupture determines the rating."

"The ASTM D3597-02-D434 and the ASTM D4034 are test methods of the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). To measure a fabric's ability to resist seam slippage, a seam is sewn in the test fabric using a standard thread, specific seam allowance and specific number of stitches per inch. The sewn fabric is then clamped at opposing side of the seam. One clamp is moved away from the other applying tension at the sewn seam. This test is performed in both the warp and filling directions. The tension is increased until the seam separates to a specific distance. The number of pounds required to cause separation due to yarn slippage determines the rating."







SOURCE: Association of Contact Textiles Website